Presentation from Algeria -
The ANRH is made of a Head department and
4 regional headquarters (East, Center, West and South).
It depends on the Ministry of equipment
and territory management. It is divided into 6 departments :
the administrative department,
the hydrological department,
the hydrogeological department,
the pedological department,
the computer department,
the laboratory department.
The runoff in Algeria mainly concerns the
northern part of the country. In the north of the line Bechar-Laghouat,
it is spread over a surface area of about 330,000 km²
The time distribution of the rainfall
as well as the lithologic and morphologic nature of the catchments give
an important seasonal and inter-annual irregularity,
violent and rapid floods.
In the framework of the Med-Hycos programme,
Algeria is divided in 17 large hydrographic basins, divided into 3 groups
In our case, we will only focus on the basins
going to the Mediterranean sea.
The basins going to the Mediterranean sea,
The endoreic basins,
The Saharan basins
These basins drain the Tellien Atlas and
the Saharan mountains. They are spread over a surface area of 130,000 km²
and receive an average rainfall varying from 400 mm to 1,500 mm. The mean
annual supply is estimated to 11 billion (milliard) m³.
The first selected station for
the Med-Hycos Programme is :
situated in the Oued Isser not far from Algiers.
Some hydrometric stations are already installed.
There are 2 dams in this area which provide Algiers in water. The main
aim is to control the floods which flow into the Mediterranean sea.
Basins taken into account for
Within the framework of the Med-Hycos programme,
only the important basins have been taken into account :
This choice was made according to the two
following criteria :
These basins represent by themselves, a surface
area of about 79,650 km², that is 26 % of the total surface area of
northern Algeria, and totalise a supply of nearly 3 billion m³ (supply
at the outlet of these basins).
importance of supplies.
concentration of population and industries
(water demand increasing, problems of pollution).
Perspectives of development
of the national hydroclimatological network
A monthly discharge of a given month cannot
be known sooner than several months later, in the present conditions of
equipment and management of the network. This delay can be reduced significantly
using automatic devices.
With this in mind, ANRH inscribed in its
programme a general study of modernisation of the network.
This modernisation will allow :
The desired objective is to obtain a totally
monitored network and a network of remote monitoring via satellite.
an optimisation of management;
a reduction of process delays;
an improvement of quality of information.
This will permit the programmers to obtain
sufficient information (in quantity and in quality) to provide the water
demand while respecting environment protection.
In order to improve the cooperation between
the international hydrological services and resources management, ANRH
proposes 8 hydrometrical stations (in the 7 basins) and whishes this set
of stations to be part of the world network of reference stations.
Object of the study
The bulk of the national hydroclimatological
network was set up during the 70's and equipped with classical measurement
devices. It is now a little obsolete, not of high performance and inadapted
to a real time monitoring system and a dynamic resource management.
The nature of the sensors and the recording
systems on this network, the pneumatic power and energetic systems of the
devices, the methods for taking samples and measuring, the calculation
methods and the data transmission multiply the sources of errors and are
at the origin of long delays between the acquisition of the data and its
The successive periods of drought observed
in Algeria during the last two decades, and their impact on the water resources
and the environment pointed out the inadequacy of this network and the
need to possess tools and dynamic management systems in matter of water
Today, taking into account the improvement
of technologies in matters of acquisition, storage and transmission of
data via satellites, and the improvement in matter of mathematical modelling,
the forecasting and simulation of hydroclimatological phenomena, we could
consider real time monitoring and dynamic and large basin scale management.
The Algerian ministry of Equipment and
Management of the Territory plans, via ANRH, to get, master and start up
such tools, firstly in the larger regions of hydraulic planification of
Oran, Algiers and Constantine where important hydraulic works have been
carried out, and where the water demand grew in an important manner.
Description of the present network
The network presently managed by ANRH is made
The hydrometrical stations are equipped with
staff gauges and pneumatic limnographs with air alimentation through compressed
air bottles and powered with cells. The discharge measurements are made
while taking gaugings with current meters on a perch or on winch.
220 hydrometrical stations,
60 complete climatological stations,
1500 rainfall stations.
The monitoring of the quality of water
was operated for about ten years via a network of 120 observation points,
mainly using large reservoirs dedicated to the supply of drinking water
and the main wadis. The analysis made from manually taken samples, using
about thirty physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters.
Present organisation of the
path of the information and the process of the data
The chain of data processing presently used,
relatively manual, is mainly done depending on the equipments installed
and the observation techniques, and the used measurements.
After the collection of data at the stations,
the measurements and records are processed at three different levels, corresponding
to the regional organisation at ANRH.
At the level of the hydrological
The sector is the basic cell of ANRH and its
main aims are :
to carry out measurements and basic analysis,
to collect the records and carry out the first process of the information,
to carry out manual process of the hydroclimatological
records (control of the observers and the rainfall records, calculation
of the gaugings, transcription of the limnographs and rainfall records,
staff gauge reader books, filling the key entry forms).
transmission by mail of the data to the Regional
At the level of the Regional
The data coming from the sectors are controlled
and key entered in computers (the Regional Antennas are now equipped with
For the last years, the drawing of rating
curves of the stations are done at the level of the Regional Antennas.
On the other hand the Regional Antenna
proceeds to the fundamental physico-chemical and biological analysis and
processes the data dealing with the quality of water.
A mini data bank is built at the level
of the Antenna.
The processed data, as well as the original
recordings are then transmitted to the Central Direction.
At the level of the Central
The data coming from the Regional Antennas
are, at the level of the Central Direction of ANRH, tested and complementarily
processed, validated and feed in the end the National data bank of water
These data are then processed for :
Carte de situation des stations hydrométriques
the publication of hydroclimatological water
the carrying out of hydrological management
the carrying out of general studies on rainfalls,
mean annual supplies, floods, solid discharges and salinity of waters,
the elaboration of studies of regional mapping
Carte de la qualité des eaux superficielles
Liste des stations proposées