Introduction

Since 90th very hard political and economical situation had been existing in Georgia. These difficulties caused the hydrometeorological Service deterioration. It reflected on network decrease. Despite all complications the Head of Hydrological Department had done all the best to survive the Service. From the last year we've got the tendency of improvement. The hydrological service development program from 1997-2000 was proved by President of Georgia with necessary financial support.

About Situation Of State Hydrological Observation Network In Georgia.

In Georgia studying water flew has been established since 1862. That time water discharge was measured daily for special aims on the river Mtkvari bellow the ostairy of river Vere. The regular observations started in 1904 in the east Georgia (Tbilisi) on the river Mtkvari and in 1909 in the west Georgia (Kutaisi) on the river Rioni. The hydrological net had been developing from 1923. Before the Second World War the number of stations amounted 10 145, but during the war it decreased to 98. The following period has been characterized with increasing number of stations. There were 149 stations in 70th in Georgia. Then the net was cut and the amount in 1988 reached 118 and in 1995 river network consisted only 86 stations.

The most important period in studying and issuing observation network state of Georgia is 1960-1987, when several annuals and reference books "Hydrological Study" (1964) and "Main Hydrological Characteristics" (1967,1977,1978,1987) were published. In 1969 the monograph "Surface Water Resources" and in 1974 the reference book "Hydrological Description of West Transcaucasus rivers, lakes and water storage" were brought out.

The annual and multy-years data for 1987-1992 are saved in manuscripts. Georgia has had both: the state and the departmental (Tbilisi State University (1 - station), Ministry of Energy (7), Institute of HydroProject (0)) net functioning nowadays.

Today state hydrometeorological network consists stations on 86 rivers, 3 lakes and 5 water storage. We have water level and temperature data measuring on these stations. The measure equipment now is out of order on the several stations, that's why water discharge and sediment discharge are measured only on the ten stations.

Lake stations work by second level program - there are measurements of levels and temperature at the coastal line. Observations on the water storage aquatory are not done.

The stations for measuring evaporation from water surface are placed in hard ecology regions, but unfortunately on 6 stations are used instead of 16, the reason is the lack of equipment.

Hydrological Department is planning to reconstruct stopped seashore stations in Batumi, Kobuleti and Poti.

State of Data Bases.

Data consist both : hydrological data itself and hydrochemical parameters.

a. Hydrological data.

Observation data are printed in journals. Since 1978 the information was sent to Russia for the following machine treatment. Russia stores the following data:

  1. water regime;
  2. water daily discharge;
  3. water daily level;
  4. water daily regime;
  5. water monthly discharge;
  6. river water temperature;
  7. main hydrological characteristics;
  8. monthly average sediment discharge;
  9. granulometrical composition of clastic deposits.
Wholly Russia possesses:
  1. first - hand data on the stations (1978-1992);
  2. daily magnitude of river and flow water regime and granulometrical composition of deposits (1980 - 1992);
  3. main hydrographical and hydrological characteristics of river regime (1930 - 1985).
Russia has had obligation to put data on diskettes.

Hydrological Department is planning to hand them this year. The data in computer has not existed from 1992, they are saved only in journals.

b. Hydrochemical parameters.

In former USSR the chemical parameters were worked up in similar way in all republics. Before 19985 all explorations were gathered and carried out in Russia, but after 1985 explorations continued in republics. So happened in Georgia too. In 1993 Georgia the first in former USSR began the processing system of data bases by using PC.

The Activities of Environmental Monitoring Centre of Department of Hydrology.

a. Surface waters

The water samples had been taken from 86 flow objects of rivers, which included 180 posts of 144 stations till 1990 in Georgia. Hydrological stations are divided in to 4 category by rate of pollution. The samples were taken every day, once a month and eight times in a year according to category in compliance of hydrological phases. 57 parameters were determined in each sample. 12 parameters among them were measured in stations. Now it's not possible to determine amount of any heavy metals.

In 80th automatic stations functioned together with regime observation stations on river Mtkvari in Tbilisi. Now they are out.

In 1996 only 277 samples were taken instead of 1378 from 34 rivers, 2 lakes, 2 water storage and 1 canal.

b. Atmosphere Precipitation.

The chemical compositions of atmosphere precipitation's were studied in 30 towns of Georgia. 15 ingredients were determined in taken samples (table), but in 1996 atmosphere precipitation samples were obtained from 4 stations instead of 14 towns.

c. Discharge and Clastic Deposits Granulometry.

By 1990 sediment precipitation samples were delivered from 83 hydrological stations and clastic deposits - from 26 stations. In 1996 the samples were taken only from 1 station (6 samples).

d. Black Sea Water.

The observation work on the state of Black Sea Water were hold on 45 stations in 8 towns and were determined their hydrochemical and hydrobiological parameters.
 
Parameters Determining in Surface Water.
N Parameter N Parameter N Parameter
1 smell 21 O2 chemical use 41 Ag
2 transparency 22 O2 biochemical use (5 round the clock) 42 potassium
3 color 23 ammonium nitrogen 43 Al
4 temperature 24 nitrate nitrogen 44 Mn
5 sediment particles 25 nitrite nitroggen 45 Arsenic
6 pH 26 mineral N2 combination sum 46 Ti
7 O2 deluted with water 27 Phosphates 47 Bi
8 O2 consentration rate  28 acid of silicium 48 Sum of heavy metals
9 CO2 29 specific electric conductivity 49 evaporating phenons
10 sulphurhydrogen 30 Eh 50 rosins and asphaltines
11 magnesium 31 ammonia 51 oil products
12 chlorides 32 Fe 52 surface active synthetic material
13 sulphates 33 Cu 53 caprolactam
14 mineralization 34 Zn 54 DDE
15 summary hardiness 35 Ni 55 DDT
16 hydrocarbonates 36 Pl 56 hexachloran
17 carbonates 37 Cr 57 Lindan
18 Na 38 Va
19 Ka 39 Mb
20 Ca 40 Co
Parameters Determining in Atmosphere precipitation
N Parameter N Parameter N Parameter
1 pH 6 SO4 11 Ca++
2 electric conductivity 7 Cl-  12 aldehydes
3 HCO3 8 Mg++ 13 heavy metals
4 NH 9 Na+  14 phenol
5 NO 10 K+ 15 pesticides
Sea Water Rate Observation parameters
N Hydrochemical parameter N Hydrochemical parameter
1 pH 1 whole quantity of microorganisms 
2 concentration of salt 2 quantity of saprophyte microorganisms 
3 deluted oxygen 3 quantity of oil acid microorganisms 
4 oxygen relative concentration 4 quantity of bentosite organisms
5 nitrites 5 biomes of bentosite organisms
6 phosphates 6 quantity of zooplactonic organisms
7 Si 7 biomes of zooplactonic organisms 
8 oil products 8 species of zooplactonic organisms 
9 pesticides (DDT, DDE, Gamma - HCCH)