NATIONAL
INSTITUTE  OF 
METEOROLOGY  AND  HYDROLOGY

NIMH  http: //www.inmh.ro

FOREWORD   

By the Government Decision no.980 from 29 December 1998, the meteorological activity in Romania takes place unitary within the National Company National Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Waters Management S.A. (NIMH), subordinated to the Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environment Protection.

Systematic meteorological observations have started in Romania in 1857 and have been organized in a national network after the setting up in 1884 of the National Meteorological Service. The national stations network came in 1956 under administration of the State Waters Committee, and returned to NIMH after 1 April 1999.

Many young people working in meteorology have effected training stages abroad (Météo France; Met.Office; Deutche Wetterdienst). A large share of the high qualified staff undergo stages for obtaining the doctor title. Students at the Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Geography prepare their graduation diploma within the Institute and 5 Senior Researchers are associated professors at these faculties.

Beginning with 1991, NIMH specialists have been partners in 13 international projects financed by the EC or institutions from other European countries. Of these, we mention ALADIN project (limited area numeric forecasting model), ETEX (pollutant transport European experiment), MARS (agrometeorological modelling), Informatic System for Agrometeorology, Radon Diffusion in the Atmosphere).

Since 1995 NIMH have been involved in  MEDYCOS (Mediterranean Hydrological Cycle Observing System) project, coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization and financed by World Bank.

NIMH publishes the Romanian Journal of Meteorology , a journal in foreign languages and also Studies and Researches in Meteorology a magazine in Romanian.

Starting with 1998, the Romanian Government has allocated 20 bil. lei funds for the technologic upgrading of NIMH, having been achieved: installation of a Message Commuting Automated System       (MESIR), which ensures transmission in the international flux; setting to work a NOAA Satellite Reception Station supporting meteorological  forecasts; Purchasing 10 automated meteorological stations and 2 DOPPLER meteorological radar in the C band, $ 2 mil. worth; Modernizing telecommunications from meteorological stations level to the Regional Meteorological Centres.

2000 is the year when Law 139/2000 passed as Law on the activity in meteorology . It endows the National Meteorological Inspection within the NC’NIMHWM S.A. (NIMH) inspection and   control competencies in the enforcement of the mentioned law.

Romanian meteorology is thus prepared to enter the third millenium.

BRIEF  HISTORY   

Romanian Meteorological Service was set up in July 1884, by the decision of the Department of Agriculture, Industry, Commerce and Domains. The first Director was Dr. Stefan Hepites. This moment marked the beginning of a systematic, unitary activity at national level. At the same time, it crowned the efforts of some dedicated people who understood the importance of this activity for the economic life of our country

METEOROLOGY

9-17AD during the period of his exile, the great poet Ovidius described the frost phenomenon of the Black Sea’s water;

The first instrumental observations (Iasi, Bucuresti, Timisoara) we are informed about, has been dating since the end of the 18th century;

In acknowledgement of the meteorological activity in Romania, at the universal exhibition in Paris, 1900 the Romanian Meteorological Institute was awarded with the silver medal and the diploma of honour;

1921-1922 meteorology was introduced in the analytic curriculum of the forestry superior schools in Bucharest and Cluj and since 1923, also in the Physics department of the Faculty Science, Bucharest;

1941, 1942 Baneasa the first air tests and radio tests respectively;

1949 the Atmospherysics Observatory from Afumati is set up;

1951 Romania takes part in the first WMO Congress as a founding member;

1961 the inauguration of the present centre - Sos. Bucuresti-Ploiesti, 97;

December 29th, 1998 is set up the National Company National Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Water Management S.A. subordinated to the Water, Forest and Environment Protection Ministry;

Thus, the Institute legally obtained its juridical personality and regained the national network of meteorological observations.

HYDROLOGY AND WATER MANAGEMENT

150 Claudius Ptolemaeus achieves a map-drawing representation of the hydrographic network of the Romanian counties;

The first water management works are known even since ancient as example we could mention the aqueducts from Histria, Calatis, Sarmizegetusa;

1613 the law 27 is adopted regarding the authorisation of embankment works and dams for the water mills;

1728 the sewerage of the Bega river begins;

1782 Lunguletu deviation channel is finished of the Dambovita river to Arges, in order to protect Bucharest from floods;

The hydrometric measurements begin on the Danube with Orsova hydrometric station, set up in 1838, and on the internal rivers in the second part of the 19th century at Radna, Savarsin, Arad on the Mures, Sighetul Marmatiei on the Tisa, Satu Mare on the Somes;

1959 the water administration is introduced in all the hydrologic basins;

1970 hydrology is added to the name of the institution, called since now on, Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology .

MAIN  DOMAIN  ACTIVITIES

METEOROLOGICAL  METHODS   

Co-ordination of the meteorological station activity in the NIMH; Control of the quality of information and data sent by the stations; Selection and confirmation of the location of the meteorological station platforms; Elaboration of codes, guides, methodlogical rules and instructions for the meteorological units use in the NIMH or for other users according to WMO suggestions and national requests; Participation to the methodological rules elaboration; Participation to the professional training of the meteorological station and service staff; Studies for  the implementation of new programs of observation and measurements.

Legal settlement regarding meteorological station platform

Standard meteorological station platform where is fixed the majority of meteorological systems and instruments measures 26x26 meters and it is usually placed in a free space, without major impediments which could disturb the free air circulation.

Meteorological station platform protection is established by normative rules which establish that around the meteorological stations platform on a distance of about 30 meters, is set up the absolute protection area, where no one can rise buildings or underground equipments. The location on a distance of about 500 meters around the meteorological stations platform of building higher than 1/6 of the distance between the building and the protection area is forbidden.

Rules regarding the measured meteorological elements

Meteorological stations in the national network realises observation and measurement programs according to WMO’s rules for the followings elements: atmospheric pressure; wind; air temperature; air relative humidity; soil temperature; sun shining duration; cloud amount; atmospheric precipitation; snow cover; atmospheric horizontal visibility; ice deposits on the conductors.

Recent achievements

We passed to the unification of the climatological and synoptical observation systems.

There were set up methodological rules for the application of the Immediate Order, regarding the protection measures for the staff who work in periods with extreme temperatures.

There were elaborated instructions in order to apply the Gouvernment Decision 638/1999 regarding the protection rule against floods, dangerous meteorological phenomena and accidents at the hydrotechnical structures, relative to the informational details, forecasts and warnings, critical levels and frequency of their transmission.

There were elaborated methodological rules for granting competence certificates and references and for a good functioning of the National Meteorological Inspection.

ATMOSPHERIC  PHYSICS

Operative activities: Measurements of the solar radiation components: direct, scattered, global and reflected radiation; Climatic measurements; Measurements of the atmospheric radiative balance; Spectral measurements of the solar radiation components; Ultraviolet rays: global UV and UV-B; Measurements of the air temperature and wind gradients; Determination of the small ion concentration from the free atmosphere, the air conductivity and the atmospheric electric field; Measurements of the natural lighting and the atmospheric turbidity; Carbon dioxide concentration monitoring; Measurement of the b and g radioactivity profiles in the troposphere and stratosphere, using radiosondes of the type VAISALA.

Aerological data measured in real time and ozone data Atmospheric vertical structure in soil 30 km at 3 measurement points in our country (Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca and Constanta); Wind distribution in altitude (soil 5 km) based on the PILOT baloon sounding at observation standard terms: 06.00 and 12.00 UTC; Measurement of the daily ozone total  quantity at Bucharest; Representation of the STUWE aerological diagram and the altitude parameters daily variations at standard pressure levels.

Research - development activity

Studies of atmospheric physics and solar radiation: Mathematical modelling for the estimation of the solar radiation components; Applications of the solar radiation in urban architecture problems; Spectral models for the calculation of the solar radiation; Persistence study of some meteorological conditions with a certain impact upon the problems of wind and solar energetics and air pollution; Researches regarding the atmospheric boundary layer; Unidimensional cloud models, with training, total water, microphysics with parameters and with the possibility to estimate the quantity of aerosol washed by precipitation; Study of the dynamics of small atmospheric ions concentration; Study of the atmospheric electric field variability; Study of the electric climate in the areas of turistic, bathing and climatic interest, and in social buildings; Study of the turbidity in the urban environment; Studies upon solar radiation transfer within the earthly atmosphere.

Studies of air pollution: Gaussian Dispersion model for continuous and accidental sources; Modelling of the pollution mean annual concentrations, using a climatological model with new parameters from the new generation; Models of statistical estimation of the pollutant concentrations using the dynamic series; Model bases on the diffusion equation with applications in the atmospheric calm; Elaboration of diagnoses and forecasts of the air pollution potential; Researches regarding atmospheric diffusion process, using the tracers; Model of radionucleus dispersion for a continuous emission at local scale; Studies upon atmospheric processes using natural radioactive tracers; Mathematical modelling of the atmospheric diffusion of the radon isotopes and cosmogenical radionucleus; Study of atmospheric subsystem atractors using the natural radioactive tracers; Diffusion processes in the vegetal layer using natural radioactive tracers released by the soil; Non-linear analysis of the geophysical data time  series.

Studies of  air chemistry:              Research of the carbon dioxide dynamics in the low atmosphere using data measured with an automatic monitor; Study of the predictability and the anthropic source influence upon the carbon dioxide concentration using the dynamic system theory.

Agroclimatological studies: spatial-temporal distribution of the altitude climatological parameters at the main levels of standard pressure; Evolution of some aerological parameters: thermic inversions, isotherms, tropopause, unstable air mass; mixing height variation; ozone layer dynamics.

METEOROLOGICAL DATA  AND  INFORMATION  PROCESSING 

Activities

Numerical weather modelling and data assimilation

operational integration of ALADINthe numerical weather prediction model

operational integration of the VAGROM and WAM wave models

operational integration of the MEDIA pollutant transport and diffusion model

operational pre-processing of the input data for hydrological model CONSUL

development of the numerical models

As a consequence of the Romanian participation in the international project Aladin, the numerical weather prediction system of NIMH  relies on the ALADIN model. Romania was the first country to introduce the workstation version of the model,besides France, in March 1996. From March 1996 to August 1997 the model was pre-operationally run. Afterwards it became fully operational. Nowadays the ALADIN model is integrated up to 48 hours, twice per day in dynamical adaptation way, using initial and boundary conditions supplied by Meteo-France.

The ALADIN Project was initiated in 1990, when Meteo France proposed to the National Meteorological Services in Central and Eastern Europe to develop a model specially designed for meso-scale simulations as a limited area version of the global model ARPEGE .

Statistical adaptation and meteorological forecast verification

Software development and adapting weather forecast activity to the computing environment

 Integration of real and forecast data in the MESSIR visualisation system

           -- Dedicated   software      for TV     meteorological        forecast       presentations

Modelling and analysis supported by the Geographical Information System (GIS)

Pollutant dispersion modelling  in GIS support in the urban  environment

-  Integration of the hydrological, hydrogeological and meteorological data and information using OpenGIS

Meteorological data and information validation and correction

Products and applications

   Meteorological forecasts in any graphical format;

at surface level, by pressure levels, height levels, potential temperature and vorticity levels (i.e. wind)

probable pseudo-satellite images

hydrographic, administrative, digital terrain models;

pollutant dispersion in urban environment.

OPERATIONAL  METEOROLOGY

The Weather Forecasting Synoptic Service was settled on 1 January 1925, and the first synoptic network in 1936.

The first long and very long range forecasts were elaborated in 1946.

In 1970, there has started the building up of the meteorological radar network and the reception station for meteorological satellite images became operational.

Very Short, Short and Mean Duration Forecasting Activity

Permanently monitoring of  the weather evolution at European continent level and mostly at the level of Romania.

Elaborate diagnostic and forecasting meteorological reports, both general and specialized, requested by the third party beneficiaries, at national and Wallachia region level, over various time intervals, from 3 hours to 7 days.

Release warnings about the occurrence of hazardous weather phenomena.

Develop, optimize and automatize methods from the activity of weather monitoring and forecasting, at different spatio-temporal scales, in tight connection with the Meteorological Data and Information Processing Laboratory.

Professionally coordinate similar units in the territory (Weather Forecasting Services).

Staff formation in the domain.

Long Range Forecasting Activity

Elaborate diagnostic and forecasting meteorological reports, both general and specialised, on command of third party benefiaries, at national and Wallachia region level, over time intervals from 1 to 3 months.

Satellite Meteorology Activity

Operational Activity

>Digital and analogical data reception from:

Process and disseminate products to the operative forecasting services:

Cloud cover;

Cloud peaks temperature;

Image animation.

Research activity

Land and sea surface temperature

Cloud peaks height

Cloud systems classification

Vertical temperature profiles from TOVS data.

RADAR activity

Operational activity

Permanent monitoring of the cloud cover evolution over the geographic area of the capital of Romania, integration of these radar information in those supplied by the other radars within the National Radar Network and dissemination to weather forecasting Services and third party beneficiaries. The National Radar Network is made up of:

2 DWSR2500C (λ = 5.3 cm) sited in Bucharest (2000) and Craiova (2000) fully automated Doppler radars:  

1 Plessey 42 X (wavelength λ = 3.2 cm) sited in Cluj, operational since 1969

3 MRL2 (wavelength λ = 3.2 cm) sited in: Oradea (1978); Timi¿oara (1978); Ia¿i (1979)

2 MRL5 2 wave  lengths (λ = 3.2 cm and λ= 10.3 cm), onein fixed variant: Timisoara 1990, and onein mobile variant: Tuzla (1984).

Warnings for hazardous meteorological and hydrological phenomena.

Professionally coordinate similar units in the territory (radar stations) and formate staff in the field.

Research activity

Integration in the European meteorological radar network.

Now-casting forecast methods based on fine scale radar information and hydrodynamic models.

METEOROLOGICAL STUDIES AND RESEARCHES

Dinamic meteorology activity

The dynamic meteorology and the numerical forecasts activity has begun in 1959.

1) Dynamic meteorology researches and applications:

study of the atmospheric models in different estimations;

modelling and study of the thermodynamic processes;

coupled dynamic systems.

2) Researches upon the physical processes in the atmosphere:

parameterizing of the limited layer physical processes, convective precipitation, physical processes due to the surface forcing.

3) Atmospheric numerical modelling:

a) at urban scale (adjusted version of the ALADIN model);

b) mesoscale (ALADIN - operative model elaborated in international co-operation and HRM-Germany);

c) at regional scale Reg CM2(NCAR).

Coupled numerical systems for atmospheric modelling and this processes which interact with this one:

a) SAFRANCROCUS (France)  analysis and forecast model of the snow cover evolution;

b) stratospheric spectral model for the ozone study (research model);

c) conceptual model of ZETA orographic flow;

d) diffusion study and forecast and atmospheric polutant transport.

MEDIA model (French model introduced in Romania);

INPUFF model (PUFF Integrated model adjusted for Romania);

4) International projects: Participation to LIFE-ASSURE international project.

Research activity for long-range meteorological forecast

1)    Researches upon mechanisms at global scale which determine predictable processes at regional scale, in order to improve the long and extended range forecasts; methods of monthy, seasonal, annual forecasting;

2)    Study of the signal-noise report in meteorological variables noticed on long intervals and also in those ones obtained from climate change models;

3)    Improvement techniques of the operational meteorological forecasts in order to obtain a higher degree of their performance;

4)    Markovian modelling of the ocean influence upon atmospheric processes which favour  extreme events occurrence.

Dynamic climatology activity

Ongoing since 1988.

   Climatic variability

Analysis of the climatic variability characteristics in Romania, connected with physical mechanisms at large scale;

Analysis of the way in which global and regional climatic models simulate the climatic variability characteristics at regional scale; international collaborations provided the analyses of the models entitled ECHAM (Germany) and LMD (France).

   Climatic prediction >

 Evaluation of the climatic predictability based on the analysis of the slow climatic processes at large scale and the applications of the dynamic systems theory.

    Forecasting estimations of the climatic anomalies in Romania    with    long   anticipation  (1-3 seasons),  using    linear,

univaried, autoregressive models  (AR), multivaried linear models based on the analysis of the canonical co-relation (CCA), models based on the multifield analogy of the climatic state vector, probability models.

Adjustment methods of the climatic predictive models to specific needs in agriculture and water management.

   Global and regional climatic changes

Changes detection in the climatic regime in Romania, based on long rows analysis of climatological observations and their physical evidence by the identification of some atmospheric circulation changes at large scale.

Projection at Romania scale of the climatic changes simulated by global climatic models using downscaling statistical models; evaluation of their confidence level.

   Climate reconstruction from indirect data using meteorological informational sources which have existed before the instrumental measurements.

Climatology activity

It has started in 1884, since the beginning of the Meteorological Service in Romania.

Operational activities:

Setting up of the climatic data national fund, from original data put together and resulted from all the meteorological stations in the national  and supplementary network; climatic data quality control (hourly, daily, monthly data).

Climatological substantiation of the synoptic forecasts in different periods of time.

Participation to WMO project of climatic system monitoring (CSM Project), CLIMAT message activity.

CLICOM (Climate COMputing) 1 project within WMO program World Climate Data and Monitoring Program (WCDMP) , relational system of climatic data base management.

Research activities

Climatic monitoring of the Romanian territory;

Climatic potential assessment by geographic areas or in the whole territory;

Elaboration of climatic monographs at district or town level;

Elaboration of microclimatical and topoclimatical studies;

Elaboration of annual and climatic atlases.

Climatic studies with applied character for location, projection, construction and exploitation of some social, economic and environment objectives;

Participation to the state standards elaboration (STAS) regarding climatic loading of the wind, snow, rime upon the constructions:

Calculation parameters of the ventilation and adjustment to climate equipments.

Determination of rainfall intensity over different periods of time and certain ensuring town planning projects.

Impact studies upon the environment in the domain of industry, hydrotechnical structures, energetics.

Evaluation of energetical wind resources of Romania at different location levels of the wind turbines.

Researches upon the oscillation and variation tendencies of the climatic components caused by natural and anthropic factors.

Elaboration of climatic evolution plans for the territory of our country bases on the general atmospheric circulation models.

Studies and climatic researches regarding the biometeorological and climato-therapeutical potential in different areas of the Romanian territory.

Teledetection activity

Operative applications

Evaluation and control of the snow cover and water resources stocked in there at the level of hydrographical basins of hydroenergetical and water feeding interest using satellite and air data-images and also insitu measurements.

Elaboration of parameters extracted from satellite data useful for the vegetation state control of the agricultural crops in the conditions of hydric and thermic stress (the temperature of the atmospherevegetationsoil interface, vegetation indexes, real evapotranspiration).

Research activities

Improvement of the methods and observation proceedings with remote systems of the environment and water resources.

Use of optical and radar satellite data information in applications related to dangerous meteorological and hydrological phenomena.

Elaboration of algorithms, radiometrical and geometrical corrections for mean and high resolution satellite data.

Agrometeorological activity

Agrometeorological department was set up in 1955.

Operational service activity

Planning, organizing, up dating and working upon agrometeorological data base for monitoring of the crop vegetation conditions and soil humidity dynamics, calculation of different thermic and hydric agrometeorological indexes, calculation of the potential evapotranspiration.

Elaboration of Agrometeorological Reports:

      agrometeorological diagnose refers to the evaluation of the meteorological factors impact upon the evolution of the crop vegetation state, water deposits available for plants at different depths and also upon the phenological improvement and phytosanitary state, mentioning the advance and delay in vegetation because of the bad weather conditions.

        agrometeorological forecast includes meteorological conditions perspective for the next interval, phenological phases and crops prediction, warning about some dangerous agrometeorological phenomena, illnesses, pests, and also useful recommandations/advice regarding cultivation agricultural techniques adjustment in the forecast conditions.

Applied research activity

Drought phenomenon study and its impact upon the crops;

Integrated researches regarding the improvement of the agrometeorological applications using growth simulation dynamic models, development and production of crops interfaced with teledetection technics.

Application and use of modern mathematical modelling technics based on decision support systems (crop dynamic models coupled with statistical programs of biophysical, economic and strategical analysis) for the evaluation and prediction of the variability and climatic changes impact upon the improvement and productivity of the main agricultural crops;

Concluding of the phenological and production forecast elaboration methods for the main land crops and fruit growing, using statistical and determinist mathematical models;

Study of the agrometeorological parameters with a negative impact upon the vegetation and the main agricultural crops productivity in the context of the new requests of the lasting agricultural developments;

Determination of the hazardous meteorological factors part in crops diminution, using statistical models;

Study of the precipitation surplus and the imapct upon crop systems structure.

HYDROLOGICAL RESEARCHES AND STUDIES

Operative activity  for the measurements programme of the surface runoff hydrological parameters within the experimental stations network and representative basins, useful for the improvement of the method regarding the evaluation and forecast of the water runoff and alluvial deposits synthetical parameters.

Research activity > with an applied character for improvement of models and methods regarding the water flow and alluvial deposits, determination of the hydrological parameters useful for hydrological forecasts in natural and arranged flow regime, achievement of the hydrological syntheses and surface flow parameters register as follows:

Monographs, Regionalizing, Studies of Impact and Environment Balance:

Hydrological parameters REGISTER;

Hydrological REGIONALIZING of mean and extreme flow characteristics including GIS technics;

METHODS for hydrological parameters calculation in arranged flow regime;

Environment changes impact upon hydrological parameters;

Hydrological studies regarding spatial and temporal variation of the water flow and alluvial deposits parameters.

Researches Regarding Erosion and Transport of the Alluvial Deposits

Mathematical MODELLING of the erosion and sedimentation of the river and accumulation beds;

RISC ESTIMATIONS of the hydrographical basins at solid flow and its effects upon accumulations clogging;

UP DATING of the accumulation lakes characteristic curves;

Informatic SYSTEM on GIS support for integrated monitoring of the alluvial deposits flow for accumulation lakes.

Stochastic and Statistical Modelling of the Hydrological Variables

  Establishment of the DISTRIBUTION CURVES adequate for hydrological data rows;

  STOCHASTIC SIMULATION of the time series for hydrological variables;

  MULTIVARIED ANALYSES of the hydrological data;

  ESTIMATION of the maximum probable high floods (VMP).

  ANALYSIS of the hydrological HAZARDS: high floods, droughts, frost phenomena.

Studies and Researches upon Large Rivers, Deltas and Seasides

COMPLEX HYDROLOGICAL MONITORING of the Danube, the Danube Delta and the Black Sea;

HYDROLOGICAL PARAMETERS REGISTER in representative sections on the Danube and in the Danube Delta;

MARINE HYDROLOGICAL PARAMETERS specific for the coast and open Black Sea area (levels, waves, courrents, salinity, temperatures);

Studies upon SPATIAL - TEMPORAL VARIABILITY of the water, alluvial, salt flows  on the Danube and in the Danube Delta including also CRITICAL AND ANTHROPIC INFLUENCED AREAS.

ESTIMATION OF THE POLLUTANT TRANSPORT on the Danube and the Romanian seaside;

Estimative MATHEMATICAL MODELS of the EVOLUTION TENDENCY of the flow main parameters and the morphological evolution of the Danube, the Danube Delta and the Black Sea coasts.

Main Applied Researches Regarding Hydrological Process Modelling in Experimental and Representative Basins

Mathematical modelling of the HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES AT SMALL SCALE (SVAT models);

SPECIFICITY of the liquid and solid FLOW in small basins;

MATHEMATICAL MODELLING of the vegetation processes influence, the way of use of the land upon the erosion processes.

Studies for EVAPOTRANSPIRATION determination;

LAND DIGITAL MODELS (DMT) hydrologically oriented and FRACTAL ANALYSIS.

ACTIVITIES  IN THE OPERATIVE HYDROLOGICAL FORECASTING

   Hydrological warning and forecast (short, mean and long range, ice phenomena, high floods).

   Analysis of hazardous hydrological phenomena > (high floods, drought, ice agglomeration).

   Implementation of forecasting methods at the Water Directions.

   Create and update the specific data base .

Research in the domain of hydrological forecast >

   Perfecting methodologies > to elaborate hydrological forecasts through using, stochastic, deterministic mathematical models.

   Researches for coupling numeric weather forecasting models to rain-runoff forecasting models.

   Automatize hydrological forecasting operative activity through informatic procedures.

   Elaborate projects to modernize and automatize hydrological forecasting information systems.

   Assesments on the evolution of very long range river runoff, on the grounds of studies on the impact of climate changes on the runoff formation process, as well as determining their variability tendency.

   Researches on accidental pollution along rivers and elaboration of models to forecast pollutant waves.

   Modelling the runoff in urban areas.

Information products for hydrological forecasts

   Daily hydrological bulletin Diagnosis and forecast along interior rivers Diagnosis and forecast (runoff and level) with an anticipation of 1 to 7 days along the Danube, Mure¿, Prut and Some¿ rivers.

   Monthly and seasonal > hydrological bulletin (updated every 10 days) for rivers and storage lakes.

   Informative bulletins and forecasts for hazardous hydrological phenomena (high floods, minimum runoffs, freezing phenomena).

   Hydrological bulletins > in view to ensure hydrological data exchange with neighbouring countries, according to bilateral protocols enforced.

Hydrological forecasts program products

VIDRA program to forecast high floods in hidrotechnically fitted basins.

CONSUL program to forecast discharges with a variable time step.

PROGRES - program to daily forecast the propagation of the runoff (discharge and levels) with a 1 to 7 days, with updating procedures.

VMEDZI - program to forecast mean daily discharges.

PROGLUN program to forecast mean monthly discharges lang=RO

INFORMATION, METHODS AND HYDROLOGICAL DATA BASES ACTIVITY

Digital data maps and hydrological information system

There are too important objectives of storing information from maps on computers. The first is to allow beneficiaries draw maps presenting just the area and details necessary to a scale and style specific to the desired application. The second is to use computer speed to open new means in information analysis and automation of the manual procedures for validation and expertize of hydrometric data. Combining data on runoff and water quality with those of the digitized hydrographic network makes it possible to supply maps with analysing observed-measured data at hydrometric stations, supplying the key to the accessing systems, so that data may be sorted in order, along a water flow.

The waters' information system allows exploiting data spatially and temporally within a unique package of programs. Hydrometric data may be loaded in this system in order to retrieve them in minimum accessing time.

Developing this package of programs for the analysis of hydrological information means the automated statistic computation of the flow’s parameters. Others applications may be the models of the hydrographic network for the high flood wave transport or that of the pollutant concentrations field. This package of programs may be developed and adapted to any necessities for spatial and temporal analysis of the hydrometric information and measurements.

Measurement methods, instruments, conditions of contract, prototype testing

Hydrometric instruments and devices imported by various foreign manufacturers, though reliable, are very expensive. This is  the reason why research has been encouraged in the field of producing devices within NIMH, along with solicitating contribution of various fiems in Romania through the conditions of contract. The newest achievements in the field were obtained through unifying the efforts of the traditional manufacturer of hydrometric devices in Sibiu with those of an electronic sub-ensembles manufacturer in Targu Mures. This led to meeting the objectives of the task books concerning: the case for handmills with chronocounter with automatic display and storage of spot speed measurements; limnograph with automatic storage of level data.

Primary data processing methods

Elaborate instructions, guides, develop training, specialization, automatic data computation programs, validation programs, implementation of products in the basic national hydrometric network.

Build up the hydrological data national base:

expertise of the hydrometric data national fund;

build up the historical data fund (Classical  data archieve);

analysis of unusual phenomena;

year-book, hydrologic periodicals.

WATER   MANAGEMENT  ACTIVITY

Studies and researches upon the integrated and long lasting development of the water resources.

Methods for the elaboration of arrangement plans.

Guiding schemes for water arrangement and management;

Schemes for water arrangement and management.

Integrated research of the water resources in the context of the global changes.

Mathematical models of problem and phenomenon simulation in the water management domain.

Methods for flood administration

Methods for the evaluation of the water costs and water management services.

  Studies and projects for water resources administration and protection against floods.

Water resource and land management at the danger in hazardous circumstances.

Studies and methods for easily flooded area determination and the vulnerability of  endangered areas.

Studies of flood awareness and flood vulnerability.

Studies upon hydrotechnical work performances.

Studies and projects regarding water necessity for habitual use (water supply, connections, dams, branches) and protection against floods (river stream control, dikes etc.)

Strategic studies upon water resource development/improvement and administration of the hazardous hydrometeorological phenomena.

Studies upon the effects of the hydrotechnical structures damage.

Elaboration of strategies regarding integrated water management and priority action plans.

Substantiation of decisions in the water policy and in the protection against flood/drought.

Substantiation of the economic and financial mechanisms in order to support the careful and rational use of the water resources.

Legal and institutional substantiation in the water management domain.

Aridization - Desertification

Identification and substantiation of the actions of education and participation of the population to the rational use, protection and conservation of the water resources.

Impact studies, reference documentation, agreements and licenses for water and environment management.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMUNICATION

Information associated to its processing and transmitting plays a key role in the basic activities of the Institute and information technologies are fully challenged to meet information requirements of both the manager and the professional decision makers in meteorology, hydrology and water management.

 Too distinct units exist which ensure collection, processing, management and information dissemination: National Telecommunication Centre (CNT) and Laboratory for Data Base Design and Management.

Data measured at meteorological stations are automatically collected at 6 Regional Meteorological Centres and at the CNT in Bucharest, through a specialized service for short message spreading (SMS), supplied by the national operators of mobile communications (GSM) and inserted into a local mini-system for messages commuting.

Primary data are validated through specific programs at regional level and transmitted automatically to the National Telecommunication Centre in Bucharest, in the Automatic System for Message Commuting AMSS, wherefrom they are then transmitted in WMO’s Global Telecommunications System (GTS) and to internal beneficiaries.

Telecommunications between the Regional Meteorological Centres and CNT Bucharest are performed through satellite data channels, supplied by a national operator, with a TCP/IP protocol ( ftp transfer > procedures).

AMSS system has a dual configuration in Hot Standby mode on a UNIX system and specialized software, apt to process more than 30 messages entered per second in continuous flux and to administer up to 512 channels, under various protocols and procedures.

AMSS system administers both the internal and the international circuits: with Sofia, within the RMDCN (Regional Meteorological Data Communication Network) system TCP/IP protocol; with Moskow protocol X.20 level 3 (hired circuit), with Chishinev TCP/IP.

Collection is ensured of all types of meteorological data and products: alphanumerical, graphical (T4) and binary and also their redistribution to forecasting services (in the data processing stations) and to other beneficiaries, along different communication paths: hired circuits, PSTN circuits, LAN connections, WAN connections, etc.

At the level of the headquaters of NIMHWM, information circulation is ensured by the local computers network, configured as an universal cabling system on which any equipment may communicate with various operating systems (NOVELL, WINDOWS, UNIX). NOVELL, FTP, WWW and ORACLE servers are connected in the network to administer specific services. The network is protected against outer attacks by a firewall configured on LINUX.

METEOROLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL DATA BASES contain quantitative and qualitative information on the parameters defining the meteorological and hydrological regime. They concentrate at national level at NC NIMHWM . Basic data come from:

262 meteorological stations;

1800 rain measurement points;

950 hydrometric stations;

  4500 hydrogeological drillings

which operated or are being operated in the meteorological and hydrological national state-financed network.

Storing and managing data in data bases call for converting data on magnetic support and developing their validation, storing and management applications.

To store, validate and manage , specific  applications have been developed for each type of data, mostly in FOXPRO environment. These applications are performed on PC, to validate and store the data . Data are finally stored on the NOVELL server of the local NIMH network.

An ORACLE database management system is being implemented for the management of meteorological and hydrological data bases on a server dedicated to data bases. Applications have been developed in order  to process and access data bases by concerned users.

Historical meteorological and hydrological data bases are fed from the national archieve of meteorological and hydrological data, wherefrom data series accumulated in time are taken, along with current data, belonging to the previous year. The operational flux current data (SYNOP telegrams) are taken from the AMSS system, through the local network.