Presentation from Ukraine - Mr. VODOLASKOV


THE STATE COMMITTEE OF UKRAINE FOR HYDROMETEOROLOGY

ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES

Ukraine (a Newly Independent State)
Republic since 1991
Area: 603,700 km²
Population: 53 million
Average population density about 85 inhabitants/km².
Official language: Ukrainian
Capital: Kiev (more than 3 million inhabitants)

Objectives

The aim of the Ukraine State Committee for Hydrometeorology (SCH) is to serve its customers - the Government, the public, the defense forces, aviation, industry, agriculture, shipping and commerce - by meeting their current and future requirements for meteorological, hydrological, agrometeorological, climatological and environmental information and advice in an effective manner, and to help customers to gain maximum benefit from its services.
In order to achieve those objectives, it strives to:

Human resources

At present there are more than 5 thousand staffs employed by the Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine. Of these, 2,500 have higher (university level) education and 1,000 have had secondary level technical training. Highly-trained people are dedicated and energetic and represent a remarkable resources for provision of beneficial services in the support of weather-sensitive sectors of the economy. From an operational point of view, staffing is available for most, if not all, hydrometeorological areas of interest while at the same time, women are well represented two-thirds of the total staff with many in professional positions.

Good observations are the foundation of good forecasts. In order to provide observational data for purely national purposes, as well as for international exchange for the World Weather Watch, the SCH maintains an extensive network of observing stations throughout the country and along the coastal areas of the Black and Azov Seas.
The land-based observing network consists of 203 surface meteorological observing stations (32 of which are exchanged internationally), 36 aeronautical weather stations, 651 secondary stations (manual, automated and combined), 9 upper air stations release ballon-borne instruments every 6 hours. There are 375 hydrological observing sites located in the 6 major river basins and 60 sites on lakes. The agrometeorological network includes 180 sites plus a large number of sites providing data from farms.
A network of stations makes regular observations and measurements of atmospheric pressure, wind, temperature, visibility, humidity, precipitation, sunshine duration, evaporation, phenological data and so on. Aerological stations provide temperature, humidity and wind data from the surface up to several tenth kilometers. AIl observing stations report in real-time to the 24 regional data-based centres and Central data-base centre.

Weather service

The country-wide service is provided by the Hydrometeorological Centre in Kiev, 13 regional centres and 35 specialized aeronautical weather stations. Forecasting is highly skilled scientific and technological process. Meteorological forecasts are based on computer products, mainly in graphical facsimile form, received from Moscow as well as from such NMC's as Offenbach and BrackneIl and from the ECMWF in Reading are prepared and issued for periods of up to 5 days for the country while short-term forecasts out to 36 hours are prepared by the regional centres respective areas of responsibility. Severe weather warnings are issued as required. Early weather warnings often issued several days in advance, within a few hours of the event emergency "Flash" messages, giving greater details. Forecast and warnings are disseminated by radio, TV, telephone recordings, newspapers and in the form of a widely distributed daily bulletin.

Special weather service

The aeronautical weather service is provided by the aeronautical centre at Borispol and regional aeronautical stations. Provide and advice meteorological information is carried out under agreement meteorological service to the Civil Aviation Authority .
The largest specialized service is the agriculture weather service. It's supplied by the Hydrometeorological Centre in Kiev and regional centres, specialized agrometeorological stations. Regular assessments are made of the impact of current and recent weather on agricultural production, the timely transmission of agriculturally significant weather information and its interpretation; the application of agrometeorological data for the assessment of crops and early warnings of yield failure, and the preparation of agrometeorological forecasts.
The hydrological service supplies forecasts for river basins and cascade of water storage on the Dnieper river and flood warnings.
The marine weather service provides forecasts and warnings for the coastal zones (areas Black and Azov Seas and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans) within the requirements of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea. Marine Weather Centres located at the seaports of Odessa, Mariupol, Sevastopol, Il'ichevsk .
Specialized forecasts and related products are provided as needed for various users such as economic interests, environmental control, water management, transport, construction, etc.

Data processing system

Observational data within Ukraine are transmitted from the sites by teletype, telegraph, telephone and, where appropriate for the type of data, by mail. Real-time data are collected at regional hydrometeorological centres from where they are relayed to the Kiev Centre which collects data from its region in real-time.
There are 32 telegraph and 12 telephone circuits operating and providing input into an automated dual computer-based telecommunications collection and transmission system .
Internationally, the Hydrometeorological Centre in Kiev is connected to the NMC in Minsk, World Meteorological Centre in Moscow, NMC in Kishinev. Alpha-numeric and graphical products are exchanged via circuits while the Kiev Centre transmits selected data and graphical products via radio teletype and radio facsimile and also receives such information from Moscow and from NMCs in Offenbach and BrackneIl as well as being relayed from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts in Reading.
The international exchange of data and products is carried out within the framework of WMO 's World Weather Watch Global Telecommunications System. HMC's Computer Centre includes an EC-1062 main frame computer system (comparable to IBM 379 series) with disk and tape drives, plotters, PC-type terminals, etc. The system handles a large amount of the hydrometeorological and environmental data and serves as a data bank providing access on the part of the various forecast departments, for the automated plotting of weather charts and graphs and for output from numerical weather prediction models.

Observations from satellites

Geostationary satellites provide visible images of the Earth and its clouds, measure cloud-top or surface temperature and detect regions of high or low water-vapour concentration.
Today the Hydrometeorological Centre in Kiev and 2 regional centres in Odessa and Lutsk use data from polar orbiting satellites are provided by NOAA-11 . Aeronautical centres Borispol and Simpferopol have the receiving system data from satellites "MADAR".

Environmental monitoring

The HMC monitors atmospheric pollution, surface water, sea water, radioactive fallout, snob and soil cover and provides official information regarding emergencies caused by the release of toxic chemicals into the atmosphere, water and soil, seas, and by nuclear accidents.
About 173 observing sites in 53 cities provide air quality samples for laboratory analysis while surface water and sea water quality observations are made at 136 rivers, 15 reservoirs and 7 lake sites plus 126 observing sites on the Black and Azov Seas.
Similarly, soil samples, precipitation and fallout samples are regularly analyzed for the various chemical and metal elements. In particular, soil pollution has numerous sources in Ukraine. Soils commonly are polluted by pesticides, in some places by toxic heavy metals. Data of soil pollution are collected to define a trend of multi year pollution level.
Radio-active monitoring is carried out at 182 observing stations, the most demanding and crucial radiation assessments are being made in 30-km area around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Annualy, maps of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are prepared for consideration by the appropriate authorities. The analytical aspects of the environmental monitoring programme for air, water and soil quality and for radiation are carried out among 45 laboratories in the country and National Centre of Observation Environment.

The Scientific Research Institute's task is to improve the various forecasting system used by Hydrometeorological Centre and regional Centres.
The main research fields are:


The research results are published in national magazines and in Publications of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Scientific Research Institute.

International cooperation

The State Committee of Ukraine for Hydrometeorology is a member of the CIS Intergovernmental Council on Hydrometeorology, which was established after break - up of the Soviet Union and 10 member - states are involved in its activity. The work is being coordinated by 14 working groups and the Executive Council. The State HMC has Bilateral Agreements with the Hydrometeorological Service of Moldavia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation and Belorussia about the interaction and collaboration in hydrometeorology.
Ukraine takes part in regional cooperation of hydrological institutions of Danube countries in the framework of the International Hydrological Programme (IHP of UNESCO).
The State Committee of Ukraine for Hydrometeorology is a member of the World Meteorological Organization and involved in 6 regional associations.
 
System of the Ukrainian State Committee for Hydrometeorology
State Observational System
Technical equipment
Observational Network