Presentation from Ukraine -
THE STATE COMMITTEE OF UKRAINE
ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES
Ukraine (a Newly Independent State)
Republic since 1991
Area: 603,700 km²
Population: 53 million
Average population density about 85 inhabitants/km².
Official language: Ukrainian
Capital: Kiev (more than 3 million inhabitants)
The aim of the Ukraine State Committee for
Hydrometeorology (SCH) is to serve its customers - the Government, the
public, the defense forces, aviation, industry, agriculture, shipping and
commerce - by meeting their current and future requirements for meteorological,
hydrological, agrometeorological, climatological and environmental information
and advice in an effective manner, and to help customers to gain maximum
benefit from its services.
In order to achieve those objectives,
it strives to:
Maintain an integrated National Hydrometeorological
Improve the accuracy of forecasts and warnings;
Use modern, well-proven technologies;
Play a role in the development of hydrometeorological
science and operations through national and international collaboration;
Collect, process, distribute and store meteorological,
hydrological, climatological, air quality, water quality, and serological
Maintain scientific and technical research
and development in all these fields.
At present there are more than 5 thousand
staffs employed by the Hydrometeorological Service of Ukraine. Of these,
2,500 have higher (university level) education and 1,000 have had secondary
level technical training. Highly-trained people are dedicated and energetic
and represent a remarkable resources for provision of beneficial services
in the support of weather-sensitive sectors of the economy. From an operational
point of view, staffing is available for most, if not all, hydrometeorological
areas of interest while at the same time, women are well represented two-thirds
of the total staff with many in professional positions.
Good observations are the foundation of
good forecasts. In order to provide observational data for purely national
purposes, as well as for international exchange for the World Weather Watch,
the SCH maintains an extensive network of observing stations throughout
the country and along the coastal areas of the Black and Azov Seas.
The land-based observing network consists
of 203 surface meteorological observing stations (32 of which are exchanged
internationally), 36 aeronautical weather stations, 651 secondary stations
(manual, automated and combined), 9 upper air stations release ballon-borne
instruments every 6 hours. There are 375 hydrological observing sites located
in the 6 major river basins and 60 sites on lakes. The agrometeorological
network includes 180 sites plus a large number of sites providing data
A network of stations makes regular observations
and measurements of atmospheric pressure, wind, temperature, visibility,
humidity, precipitation, sunshine duration, evaporation, phenological data
and so on. Aerological stations provide temperature, humidity and wind
data from the surface up to several tenth kilometers. AIl observing stations
report in real-time to the 24 regional data-based centres and Central data-base
The country-wide service is provided by the
Hydrometeorological Centre in Kiev, 13 regional centres and 35 specialized
aeronautical weather stations. Forecasting is highly skilled scientific
and technological process. Meteorological forecasts are based on computer
products, mainly in graphical facsimile form, received from Moscow as well
as from such NMC's as Offenbach and BrackneIl and from the ECMWF in Reading
are prepared and issued for periods of up to 5 days for the country while
short-term forecasts out to 36 hours are prepared by the regional centres
respective areas of responsibility. Severe weather warnings are issued
as required. Early weather warnings often issued several days in advance,
within a few hours of the event emergency "Flash" messages, giving greater
details. Forecast and warnings are disseminated by radio, TV, telephone
recordings, newspapers and in the form of a widely distributed daily bulletin.
Special weather service
The aeronautical weather service is provided
by the aeronautical centre at Borispol and regional aeronautical stations.
Provide and advice meteorological information is carried out under agreement
meteorological service to the Civil Aviation Authority .
The largest specialized service is the
agriculture weather service. It's supplied by the Hydrometeorological Centre
in Kiev and regional centres, specialized agrometeorological stations.
Regular assessments are made of the impact of current and recent weather
on agricultural production, the timely transmission of agriculturally significant
weather information and its interpretation; the application of agrometeorological
data for the assessment of crops and early warnings of yield failure, and
the preparation of agrometeorological forecasts.
The hydrological service supplies forecasts
for river basins and cascade of water storage on the Dnieper river and
The marine weather service provides forecasts
and warnings for the coastal zones (areas Black and Azov Seas and the Atlantic
and Indian Oceans) within the requirements of the International Convention
for Safety of Life at Sea. Marine Weather Centres located at the seaports
of Odessa, Mariupol, Sevastopol, Il'ichevsk .
Specialized forecasts and related products
are provided as needed for various users such as economic interests, environmental
control, water management, transport, construction, etc.
Data processing system
Observational data within Ukraine are transmitted
from the sites by teletype, telegraph, telephone and, where appropriate
for the type of data, by mail. Real-time data are collected at regional
hydrometeorological centres from where they are relayed to the Kiev Centre
which collects data from its region in real-time.
There are 32 telegraph and 12 telephone
circuits operating and providing input into an automated dual computer-based
telecommunications collection and transmission system .
Internationally, the Hydrometeorological
Centre in Kiev is connected to the NMC in Minsk, World Meteorological Centre
in Moscow, NMC in Kishinev. Alpha-numeric and graphical products are exchanged
via circuits while the Kiev Centre transmits selected data and graphical
products via radio teletype and radio facsimile and also receives such
information from Moscow and from NMCs in Offenbach and BrackneIl as well
as being relayed from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts
The international exchange of data and
products is carried out within the framework of WMO 's World Weather Watch
Global Telecommunications System. HMC's Computer Centre includes an EC-1062
main frame computer system (comparable to IBM 379 series) with disk and
tape drives, plotters, PC-type terminals, etc. The system handles a large
amount of the hydrometeorological and environmental data and serves as
a data bank providing access on the part of the various forecast departments,
for the automated plotting of weather charts and graphs and for output
from numerical weather prediction models.
Observations from satellites
Geostationary satellites provide visible images
of the Earth and its clouds, measure cloud-top or surface temperature and
detect regions of high or low water-vapour concentration.
Today the Hydrometeorological Centre in
Kiev and 2 regional centres in Odessa and Lutsk use data from polar orbiting
satellites are provided by NOAA-11 . Aeronautical centres Borispol and
Simpferopol have the receiving system data from satellites "MADAR".
The HMC monitors atmospheric pollution, surface
water, sea water, radioactive fallout, snob and soil cover and provides
official information regarding emergencies caused by the release of toxic
chemicals into the atmosphere, water and soil, seas, and by nuclear accidents.
About 173 observing sites in 53 cities
provide air quality samples for laboratory analysis while surface water
and sea water quality observations are made at 136 rivers, 15 reservoirs
and 7 lake sites plus 126 observing sites on the Black and Azov Seas.
Similarly, soil samples, precipitation
and fallout samples are regularly analyzed for the various chemical and
metal elements. In particular, soil pollution has numerous sources in Ukraine.
Soils commonly are polluted by pesticides, in some places by toxic heavy
metals. Data of soil pollution are collected to define a trend of multi
year pollution level.
Radio-active monitoring is carried out
at 182 observing stations, the most demanding and crucial radiation assessments
are being made in 30-km area around the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.
Annualy, maps of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are prepared for consideration by the
appropriate authorities. The analytical aspects of the environmental monitoring
programme for air, water and soil quality and for radiation are carried
out among 45 laboratories in the country and National Centre of Observation
The Scientific Research Institute's task
is to improve the various forecasting system used by Hydrometeorological
Centre and regional Centres.
The main research fields are:
numerical weather prediction models; theoretical
studies of the dynamics and micro physics of clouds and precipitation on
the mesoscale process in atmospheric fronts;
mesoscale numerical models of stratiform clouds
and precipitation in frontal systems;
regional climate modelling;
development and verification on crop-weather
study chemical and radioactive pollutants;
study of distribution of ozone concentration;
water quality monitoring.
The research results are published
in national magazines and in Publications of the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological
Scientific Research Institute.
The State Committee of Ukraine for Hydrometeorology
is a member of the CIS Intergovernmental Council on Hydrometeorology, which
was established after break - up of the Soviet Union and 10 member - states
are involved in its activity. The work is being coordinated by 14 working
groups and the Executive Council. The State HMC has Bilateral Agreements
with the Hydrometeorological Service of Moldavia, Azerbaijan, Russian Federation
and Belorussia about the interaction and collaboration in hydrometeorology.
Ukraine takes part in regional cooperation
of hydrological institutions of Danube countries in the framework of the
International Hydrological Programme (IHP of UNESCO).
The State Committee of Ukraine for Hydrometeorology
is a member of the World Meteorological Organization and involved in 6
|System of the Ukrainian State
Committee for Hydrometeorology
|State Observational System