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Report n°6

Metkovic, Croatia May 12 - 14, 1997
(Rapport en anglais)


 1. Opening
 2. Objectives of the 2nd RTF1 Meeting
 3. Characteristics of Metkovic site on Neretva river
 4. Technical data of Metkovic DCP
 5. DCP Installation Procedure Summary
 6. Feedback from the training period in Metkovic
 7. DCP technical conception
 8. DCP installation
 9. DCP operation
10. Data retrieval and processing
11. DCP maintenance
12. DCP shipment
13. Composition and functionning of the RTF1
14. Approval of the Report
15. Closure of the Meeting
16. Conclusion
17. List of Documents Delivered to the Trainees
18. Appendix 1 : List of the Participants
19. Appendix 2 : addresses of the RTF1 participants
20. Appendix 3 : AGENDA
21. Appendix 4 : General presentation of the meetings
22. Appendix 5 : Sketches and civil engineering details of Metkovic DCP site
23. Appendix 6 : Presentation from Slovenia by Mr. Bojan CERNAC
24. Appendix 7 : Presentation from Yugoslavia by Mrs. Kristina PERIC
25. Appendix 8 : Presentation from Bosnia- Herzegovina by Mr. Dzevad HADZIC
26. Appendix 9 : Presentation from Cyprus by Mr. Panayiotis SKORDIS


On the kind invitation of the Government of Croatia through the Meteorological and Hydrological Service and with the kind support of the Service and of the Tourist Board of Metkovic, the second meeting of the Initial Co-ordinating Group (ICG) was held in Metkovic (Croatia) from 12 to 14 May 1997. The representatives of The World Bank, of Medias-France and of Friend- Amhy were unable to participate.

The second meeting of Regional Task Force 1 (Establishment of the MED-HYCOS network of DCPs) being organised in Metkovic from May 12th to 24th (the list of participants is given in Appendix 1) ; the participants to both meetings attended the opening of the ICG meeting.

Mr Marc Morell, co-ordinator of the MED-HYCOS Pilot Regional Centre (PRC), welcomed the participants.

The Mayor of Metkovic, Mr. Yvo Margeta, warmly welcomed the participants and expressed his wishes to all of them for a fruitful and pleasant meeting in the city.

Mr Morell was appointed chairperson.

Mr. John Bassier, representative of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) thanked the Meteorological and Hydrological Service, the PRC team and the local authorities for hosting the RTF1 and ICG meeting and for providing excellent facilities.

Mr John Bassier, in his opening address recalled the main goals of the MED-HYCOS project and emphasised three points :

  • how to involve more actively the countries in the activities of the project ?
  • should the project purchase more Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) or reinforce the activities of co-operation between the countries ?
  • how to implement the Hycos project in the Black Sea area ?
Several presentations were made.

Mr Kreso Pandzic representing the Director of the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia gave a general presentation of this Service.

Mr Milan Zupan the head of the Hydrological Department presented an overview of the water resources of Croatia.

Mr Marc Morell gave a global presentation of the implementation of the MED-HYCOS project and the objectives of the RTF 1 training session and of the ICG meeting in Metkovic.

Mr Serge Pieyns from WMO gave some information on other regional components of the WHYCOS Programme.

Mr Robert Gouyet, from PRC Montpellier France, presented the MED-HYCOS Web site.

2. Objectives of the 2nd RTF1 Meeting

The main objective of the training program organised in Metkovic from May 11th to 24th was to train participants in the installation, operation and maintenance of PM46 DCPs.

The training program had two parts: the first week was dedicated to the theoretical aspects of the installation, operation and maintenance of DCPs, while the second week dealt with the practical aspects concerning the installation and putting into operation of a DCP on a site on the Neretva River in Metkovic.

This training program was held by trainers formed at the first RTF1 meeting (Toulouse & Montpellier, September 1996).

The meeting facilitated a comprehensive exchange of opinions between participants on almost all the aspects of the program. The statements and recommendations presented below are a summary of the discussions.

3. Characteristics of Metkovic site on Neretva river

Hydrological station Metkovic on river Neretva has been established on April 1st in the year 1934. From December 5th 1957 it works as water level recorder station.

The river basin area down to Metkovic takes 6819 km². Estuary is 20,6 km downstream from Metkovic. The average descent of Neretva is 5,02%.

The lowest water level is in summertime and the highest is in winter and springs as a result of the snow melting in the mountains. The maximum water level of +440 cm was registered in January 1953 and the minimum was +1cm in June 1964. The average yearly water level is +93 cm.

The highest water temperature in Neretva at Metkovic is in August and the lowest in January. The maximum water temperature of 26°C was registered in August 1993 and the lowest temperature was 0°C registered in November 1983. The average yearly water temperature is 11,9°C.

The riverbed between Metkovic and the estuary is made artificially in last century. It is 11 m deep measured from zero water level. This has been done to enable the big ocean ships to travel up to Metkovic where a greatest harbour in the area was built. The decay between Metkovic and the estuary is rather small and a strong influence of the saline water is present all a way up to Metkovic.

Measurements at the position of the DCP in Metkovic made in low water level season showed as follows :
Water level Remains after evaporation Judgment
- 20 cm 382 mg/l potable water
-270 cm 920 mg/l brackish water
-520 cm 29110 mg/l saline water

The water level gauge of the DCP installed has been put on -10 cm. This will enable to meet two conditions :

  • the water level gauge will never get dry
  • the water level gauge will always remain in potable water layer


Azimuth : 204,99 °
Elevation : 37,22°
Parameter   S Value Threshold
Rain RR 1 min 0,5 mm
Air Temp TA 30 min 0,1°C
Water Lev HH 30 min 1 cm
Water T° TT 30 min
WMO number N°14463

5. DCP Installation Procedure Summary

  • Clearing and preparing of the site (Sketches and civil engineering details are given in Annex 5 for the site Metkovic)
  • Construct lower part of tower
  • Dig hole for platform foundations and make trenches for sensor cables
  • Put lower part of hydrologic tower in place and lay cable protection tubing
  • Concrete the base of the platform and rain gauge
  • Construct the upper part of hydrological tower complete with all accessories
  • Assemble the two halves of the tower together and level the tower
  • Mark the azimuth position some distance away from the platform
  • Set the Meteosat antenna to the azimuth direction with the exact elevation
  • Pass sensor cables and grounding wire through the protection tubes
  • Cover each exposed cable with protection tubing
  • Connect all sensors and antenna to their respective cables and the cables to the DCP
  • Connect the solar panel and the battery connector to switch on the DCP
  • Configure the DCP

6. Feedback from the training period in Metkovic

The trainees gave a positive appreciation on the theoretical training part. The possibility of practically installing a DCP has been found very helpful for the training.

Participants agreed that it would be helpful that besides technical documentation, a short pedagogical guide based on the training course should be available, so that any person with a technical background could install and operate a DCP. The PRC and the trainers would assemble the guide based on the trainers' course presentations.

7. DCP technical conception

The manufacturer of the DCP has to determine the maximum lightning strike DCP could withstand. The case of over 100 m distance between the DCP and the water level sensor should be considered. If the built-in lightning protection is found to be unsatisfactory the manufacturer should improve it.

The PRC has to ask the manufacturer to correct the following items found not satisfactory during the installations in Tunisia and Croatia :

  • French words in the English version of the DCP menu;
  • check that the antenna rod is supplied with clean thread holes;
  • incorrect connections of the rain gauge cable.
Some participant note that the water level sensor accuracy (± 1 cm) is not suitable for low water flows.

Slovenia insists in the necessity of adapting the DCP to their existing network.

Some countries would like to have the possibility to implement a serial port to communicate with DCP via a modem or a RS232 device.

Participants agreed that each country should propose a list of environmental sensors (water quality) to be used with the PM46 DCP in a priority order.

In order to avoid the use of the electrical power supply 220 V/50 Hz, the possibility of using an alternative heating system for the rain gauge has to be studied.

For protection purposes, a more elaborated locking system for DCP electronic case should be developed.

8. DCP installation

During the installation in Croatia, pictures of the different phases of the DCP installation were taken in order to improve further training and installation.

A larger choice of cable lengths (specially for water level sensor) should be available on request to suit specific installation conditions.

Participants find to be helpful to standardise measuring conditions and for certain parameters (air temperature, total rainfall) to approach meteorological standards.

9. DCP operation

It must be possible to avoid the necessity of sending back to Toulouse the EEPROM when adding a new sensor. The manufacturer will have to modify the operating software in order to add new sensors in the field.

The programming of the DCP operation must be made in the field or in the office by means of the memory card or a laptop or other means.

10. Data retrieval and processing

It would be useful that, in order to process retrieved data from the memory card with existent software, to develop a "software interface" to provide retrieved data to HYDROM3 and/or PLUVIOM2 software.

Participants require the MED-HYCOS database to be linked to a hydrological processing tools package so as the specific needs of different countries to be taken into account. Participating countries should inform the PRC and/or RTF2 team members before the RTF2 meeting to be held about their specific needs.

Cyprus proposes to set up a library of these different software.

Some countries (Cyprus, Macedonia, Malta, Turkey) are looking for an hydrological software which deals with all the hydrological aspects of measured data processing, collected either by existing networks or by DCPs networks. PRC support is requested. Some countries (Cyprus, Malta) would like that a GIS software should be included.

If there is a possibility to retrieve Meteosat message by means of Internet, participants agree it would be easier to use it than the GTS system.

It would be helpful to have a "news group" on the Internet for the exchange of ideas about all aspects of the project. We remind the participants that a MED-HYCOS forum was created several months ago. Its address is In order to subscribe a simple request has to be addressed to the PRC

11. DCP maintenance

It is useful for further installations and for maintenance purposes to keep a historical record of the installation problems encountered and DCP failures during normal operation. These data along with the solutions provided should be available on a dedicated Web page to all participants. After a certain time of operation of the first 20 DCPs, reliability characteristics of the equipment could be derived.

12. DCP shipment

In order to facilitate maintenance routine checks, the PRC should ask the manufacturer to provide three keys for the actual locking system of the DCP electronic case.

13. Composition and functionning of the RTF1

The participants agreed with the ICG decision not be formal designation of RTF1 members.

While waiting for the setting up of regional centres, all problems concerning the DCP must be sent to the PRC.

Most of the participants of the RTF1 meeting are willing and able to attend any request of help for the intervention on the DCP.


The participants considered and adopted the draft report of the meeting with its appendixes. The meeting requested the PRC to undertake all editorial changes deemed necessary to finalise the report and to circulate it to all members of the RTF1 and to all the participating countries.


In their closing addresses, all the participants thanked the Croatian authorities for their warm hospitality and the excellent facilities provided, joined their voices to thank all the participants for their strong support and active involvement in MED-HYCOS.

The meeting was closed on May 22nd at 17.00 p.m.


The second meeting of the national representatives included in the RTF1 was very profitable. The main objective of the RTF1, installation, operation and maintenance of DCP, was perfectly reached. This was possible due to the practical training proposed during this training period.

NOTE: problems mentioned in RTF1 Report 1996 are not repeated

The participants of this RTF1 meeting would like to give special thanks to Mr. Ivan Smalcelj for his work in organising this RTF1 Meeting in Metkovic, Croatia.


  • Instructions for operation and maintenance of PM46 station - 1st level
  • Meteosat transmitter type BM 18/19 - instructions for operation
  • Kit GPS for Meteosat transmitter type BM 18/19
  • Mounting/Installation of the hydrological tower
  • DY88 Meteosat DCP Directional Antenna - instructions for operation
  • CREX A character form for the representation and exchange of data
  • Architecture - Software presentation
  • Precis Mecanique - Rainfall recorder
  • Platinum sensor for temperature measurement
  • Floating gauge CCI V10
  • Diskette with program for directing of Meteosat antenna and software which permits to retrieve data on PC using the drive of the memory card
  • Memory card user manual


List of the participants
RTF 1 training session


19. APPENDIX 2 : addresses of the RTF1 participants

Addresses of the participants RTF1 - May 12-24, 1997

PERIC Kristina ADVISER Federal Hydrometeorological Institute Bircaninova 6 Po Box 604 11001 BELGRAD YUGOSLAVIA 381 11 646 555 381 11 646 364
CERNAC Bojan Senior Adviser Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia vojkova, 1/b1001 LJUBLJANA SLOVENIA 386 61327461 386 611331396
GRECH Angel Ground Water Operations Manager Water Services Corporation Qormi Road - luqa LQA05 MALTA 356 234515
356 25999372
356 25999370
LUCASCHI Bogdan Head of Meteo and Hydro Instrument Lab National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology Sos Bucuresti
Ploiesti 97
71552 Bucarest
(40 1) 230 31 16 (40 1) 230 31 43
MARCHAND Pierre PRC ORSTOM 911 Avenue Agropolis BP 5045 34032 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 1 FRANCE (33) 04 67 63 64 21 (33) 04 67 41 18 06
SEZEN Nurullah Hydrologist Meteorological Engineer Ministry of Energy and Natural resource DSI Yucetepe 06100 ANKARA TURQUIE 90 312 4183406
90 312 4183420
90 312 4171378
LOVOSEVIC Boris Programmer Meteorological and hydrological service 10 000 ZAGREB GRIC3 CROATIE 3851 275689
MILEVSKI Josif Chief of Hydrology Department Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Macedonia Street Skupi bb 91000 SKOPJE Republic of MACEDONIA 389 91 362572 389 91 361193  
PERRAUD Manuelle CRP administrator MED-HYCOS CRP
911 Avenue Agropolis
BP 5045
34032 Montpellier cedex 1, France
(33) 04 67 63 64 29 (33) 04 67 41 21 33 manuelle.
SKORDIS Panayiotis Head Engineering Hydrology Branch of the Division of Hydrology and Water resources Management Water Development Department Water Development Department 1413 NICOSIA CYPRUS 00357 2303040 00357 2304539
SMALCELJ IVAN Leader of the electronic laboratory Meteorological and hydrological service 10 000 ZAGREB GRIC 3 CROATIE (385) 1 4565601 (385) 1 278703  
HADZIC DZEVAD Hydrologist Meteorological service Sarajevo Meteorological service Sarajevo Bosnia Herzegovina 99 387 71 540 070 99 387 71 540 070  
ZUPAN Milan   Meteorological and Hydrological service GRIC 3 10000 ZAGREB CROATIA (385) 127 72 01 (385) 127 33 25
TRINIC Dusan   Forecast Department 10 000 ZAGREB GRIC 3 CROATIE 385 1 435 689 385 1 273 325  
CESAREC Ksenija     10 000 ZAGREB GRIC 3 CROATIE 385 1 435 225 385 1 273 325  
VIDOVIC Marin Hydrology Engineer VODOPRAVNI Inspector VODOPRAVNI Inspector Zupanije dubroveko neretvanske 20350 METKOVIC CROATIA 385 020 681 155 385 020 681 655  
NASRALLAH Salem Hydrologist Ministère Agriculture DGRE 41, rue Manoubia
1008 Tunis
(216) 1 514782 (216) 1 391549  


Sunday 11th :
Welcome participants in Dubrovnik 17 h 40
Transfer to Metkovic by bus (Narona or MB Hotel)
Monday 12th :
10h00  Welcome of the participants of both meetings in the Cultural Centre (in front of Narona Hotel)
Information on the organisation of the stay
Administrative formalities 
12h00  Lunch time 
14h00  Allocution of Mr Ivo Margeta, Mayor of Metkovic 
14h15  Presentation of the hydro-meteorological service of Croatia by Dr. Kreso Pandzic representing the Director 
15h00  Presentation of the hydrological resources of Croatia by Milan Zupan 
15h45  Pause 
16h00  Presentation of MED-HYCOS project and of the meetings agenda by Marc Morell, Pilot Regional Centre (PRC) Co-ordinator 
16h45  Presentation of the MED-HYCOS Web Site by Robert Gouyet -PRC- 
17h40  Discussion
Tuesday 13th :
09h00  Meeting presentation by Bogdan Lucaschi - Romania and Ivan Smalcelj - Croatia 
09h15  Presentation of hydrological departments :
Slovenia by Bojan Cernac
Yugoslavia by Kristina Peric
Bosnia Herzegovina by Dzevad Hadzic
Cyprus by Panayiotis Skordis 
12h00  Lunch time 
14h15  Web site maintenance and hydrological products by Robert Gouyet-CRP- and Vladimir Malovic- Croatia - 
15h45  Pause 
16h00  Satellite training: Meteosat system, GTS by Bogdan Lucaschi -Romania- and Pierre Marchand -PRC- 
Wednesday 14th :
09h00  Metoesat training: Meteosat transmitter with GPS, instruction for directional antenna by Bogan Lucaschi -Romania- and Pierre Marchand -PRC- 
12h00  Lunch time 
14h00  DCP Installation: Sensors, assembly and installation of hydrological tower by Angel Grech -Malta- and Josif Milevski -Macedonia- 
18h00  Closure of the meeting 
20h00  Dinner offered by local authorities
Thursday 15th :
09h00  DCP Operation: presentation of the DCP software by Angel Grech -Malta- and Pierre Marchand -PRC- 
11h40  Data processing: by Nurullah Sezen -Turkey- and Pierre Marchand -PRC- 
12h40  Lunch time 
14h40  Retrieval of collected data: by Nurullah Sezen - Turkey- and Pierre Marchand -PRC-
Friday 16th :
09h00  Presentation of DCP Installation in Tunisia by Nasrallah Salem -Tunisia- 
10h40  Assembly of lower part of Hydrologic tower on site 
12h00  Lunch time 
14h00  Presentation of CREX code by Nurullah Sezen - Turkey- 
15h45  Lightening protection used on Automatic stations in Slovenia by Bojan Cernac 
16h40  Overview of this week’s training by Ivan Smalcelj -Croatia-
Saturday 17th :
Day trip to Dubrovnic
Sunday 18th :
Free day
Monday 19th and Tuesday 20th :
DCP Installation on site
Wednesday 21st :
Practice and data retrieval on site
Thursday 22nd :
Writing of the report and closure of the meeting 

21. Appendix 4 : General presentation of the meetings

General presentation of the meetings in Metkovic by Marc Morell - May 12th 1997

Ladies and gentlemen.

First, I'd like to thank very much our Croatian hosts, especially :

  • Mr. MARGETA, Mayor of Metkovic,
  • Mr. PANDZIC, representing the Director of the Meteorological and Hydrological service,
  • Mr. ZUPAN, the MED-HYCOS representative
  • and Mr. SMALCELJ
for welcoming us, and for the work they have put in, in organising this meeting.

This afternoon, I'd like

  • first, to remind you the main goals of the MED-HYCOS Project.
  • and, secondly, to present the objectives of the RTF 1 training session and of the ICG meeting.
In 1993, the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), with the support of the World Bank, started to promote the development of a World Hydrological Cycle Observing System (WHYCOS).

This global network of reference stations is being developed through regional components with the aim of promoting modern technologies and a regional approach to water related problems, by improving the capacities of the hydrological services and by encouraging co-operation between hydrologists.

The first regional component, called MED-HYCOS, concerns the riparian countries of the Mediterranean Sea, with a possible extension to Black Sea as additional funds would be made available to the project.

At short term range, the purposes of MED-HYCOS project are to promote modern technologies, and to encourage co-operation between hydrological services.

At middle and long term range, the purposes are to provide a reliable base, for assessment and management of water resources, and to contribute to the knowledge of the hydrological processes, in connection with climate and environment.

The Mediterranean basin is the world's largest nearly included sea. The characteristics of the basins which are flowing to the Mediterranean sea are :

  • A typical climate
  • Fragmented hydrological structures
  • Irregular streams' regimes
  • Resources highly demanded
The characteristics of the Black sea are
  • A highly polluted sea
  • Important water exchanges with the Mediterranean
  • Similar issues as with the Mediterranean
The technical conception of the program is based on
  • The set up of a Data collection platforms network
  • The implementation of a Regional operational data base
  • The output of hydrological products
  • The exchange and transmission of the information
  • The organisation of training sessions on activities related to the project
Now, I would like to present the Regional task force One (RTF 1), working on technological aspects of the MED-HYCOS project.

The objective of the RTF 1 training session in Metkovic, is the same as the one of the session held in France, in September last year. It is instruction on the installation, maintenance and exploitation of the Data Collecting Platforms, or DCP as they are usually called.

This training session will continue in Metkovic over the next two weeks. The installation of the first DCP in Croatia, will enable technicians from all MED-HYCOS countries represented in Metkovic, to gain the 'hands-on' experience they will need, to set up the platforms in their own countries.

I would remind you the main characteristics of the DCPs.

DCPs are multisensors, self powered and reliable data acquisition platforms. These DCPs are equipped by Meteosat transmitters. The installation, implementation and operation of these DCPs must be easy.

The parameters measured by the first 20 DCPs are :

  • water level,
  • rainfall,
  • water temperature, and air temperature.
The selection of the sites of the DCPs is under the responsibility of the countries. The network could expand with additional DCPs and with additional sensors. Each country is responsible for operation and maintenance of its DCPs.

Ineligible countries are by now France, Georgia, Greece, Italy, Moldova, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain and Ukraine.

We hope Bosnia, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia will be involved in the project as eligible countries.

20 platforms have been delivered to the PRC in August 1996.

The conditions necessary to receive DCPs are :

  • to be an eligible country
  • to have obtained the signature of their government on the project document
  • to have obtained an Eutmetsat channel
  • to have taken part in a DCP training session
As you can see ,in the next transparency, 5 countries fulfil these conditions.

7 DCPs were sent to these countries :

  • Croatia (1), Cyprus (1), Slovenia (1), Tunisia(2), and Turkey (2)
The other eligible countries will receive the remaining 13 DCPs as soon as they fulfil the 4 conditions.

In 1997, ten other platforms could be purchased by WMO with World Bank funds. They could be sent to the countries requiring a second station.

Tunisia must be congratulated for the starting up of their DCP. This DCP is the first one in the project transmitting data.

10 countries are taking part in the present training session in Metkovic.

After the course en Metkovic, about 25 experts from 21 countries have been trained.

In Metkovic, the 7 following experts assist for the first time a DCP training session :

  • Mrs. Kristina Peric from Yugoslavia
  • Mr Boris Lovosevic, Mr. Dusan Trninic, and Mr. Knenija Cesarec from Croatia,
  • Mr. Dzevad Hadzic from Bosnia,
  • Mr. Panayiotis Skordis from Cyprus,
  • and Mr. Bojan Cernac from Slovenia
Experts from 6 countries who took part in the training session in France, last September, will be the instructors during the first week.

These persons are :

  • Mr. Yvan Smalcelj from Croatia
  • Mr. Josif Milevski from Macedonia
  • Mr. Angel Grech from Malta
  • Mr. Bogdan Lucaschi from Romania
  • Mr. Salem Ben-Nasrallah from Tunisia
  • Mr. Nurullah Sezen from Turkey
Unfortunately, Mr. Dimiter Gaytandjiev from Bulgaria couldn't attend this meeting.

Mr. Pierre Marchand, expert from PRC, will also intervene as instructor during this training session.

During the first week of the training session in Metkovic, you will study all the technical aspects of the management of DCP :

  • Meteosat, system, DCP installation, software, sensors, and so on
During the second week, every expert, present in Metkovic, will learn how to install the first Croatian DCP on site.

The present training session will enable you to pass on the expertise you have acquired here, to technicians in your own countries.

Until now, Syria and Palestinian territories are the only eligible countries who didn't attend the DCP training session. For them, we plan to organise individualised specific training sessions. The countries which are not represented today in Croatia will have the possibility during the installation of their DCP to get some technical support from some of you.

This session will also provide a forum for the exchange of information, between all the countries about their own departments, hydrological practices, hydrological software, data bases and so on, like in Montpellier last year.

I have asked Mr. Lucaschi from Romania and Mr. Zupan from Croatia to supervise the training session with the help of Mr. Smalcelj who will be in charge of organisational aspects.

You have already received the detailed program of these two weeks training session and also the report of the last meeting in France.

I encourage every participant of this training session to exchange as much information with other participants.

I trust you to produce a good job.

Now, let's jump to the Initial Co-ordinating Group meeting, called ICG.

Before presenting the objectives of the ICG meeting, I'd like to remind you that MED-HYCOS project institutional framework is made up of a Regional Co-operating Group named RCG, an Initial Co-ordination Group named ICG and a Pilot Regional Centre named PRC.

WMO is the executing agency of the project. The World Bank finances the activities of the project during its start up period, from May 95 to May 98.

The Regional Co-operating Group is composed by all the countries and organisations involved in the project.

The RCG is responsible for the definition of strategic, technical and operational aspects of the program.

The RCG has mandated the Initial Co-ordination Group (ICG), presently made up of 7 countries and 5 organisations :

  • Bulgaria, France, Italy, Malta, Romania, Spain, Tunisia
  • WMO, The World Bank, Friend-Amhy, Medias-France, and ORSTOM
To complete the presentation of the institutional aspects, there is a Pilot Regional Center (PRC), hosted by ORSTOM in Montpellier France.

PRC operates under the authority of the ICG and under the control of WMO. The PRC is in charge of the co-ordination of the activities related to the implementation of the project during its start up period. PRC acts as a focal point of a dynamic network grouping the MED-HYCOS partners. In the Initial Co-ordinating Group, the countries are represented by :

  • Mrs. Liliana Fugaciu from Romania,
  • Mr. Dubri Dimitrov from Bulgaria,
  • Mr. Pierre Hubert from France,
  • Mr. Mario Russo from Italy,
  • Mr. John Mangion from Malta,
  • Mr. Alberto Rodriguez Fontal from Spain,
  • Mr. Ridha Kallel from Tunisia.
In Metkovic, as host country, Croatia will naturally be taking part in the ICG meeting with Mr. Zupan. We also welcome Mr. Carlo Fornaciari from Italy, Mr. Anton Music from Slovenia, and Mr. Michael Hills from GRDC.

The organisations participating, permanently, in the ICG, are :

  • The World Bank : unfortunately, Mr. Geoffrey Matthews can't be with us to day.
  • WMO represented by Mr. John Bassier, Mr. Van de Vyvere and Mr. Serge Pieyns.
  • ORSTOM represented by Mr. Jean-Marie Fritsch.
  • Medias-France and Friend-Amhy are also members of the ICG, but their representatives couldn't be with us today.
During the first meeting of the ICG in March 1996, 5 immediate objectives were identified, as you can see on this transparency :
  • Objective 1 : installation of the DCP network
  • Objective 2 : development and implementation of the regional data base
  • Objective 3 : improvement of national hydrological services
  • Objective 4 : creation of an infrastructure to facilitate communication and cooperation
  • Objective 5 : implementation of a regional computer network
The report on PRC activities in 1996, you have already received, presents the activities related to these objectives from March 1996 to March 1997.

Before ending my speech, I would like to say that the main objective of the ICG meeting in Metkovic is to review in detail the activities proposed for the coming year.

These activities are listed in the agreement between Orstom and WMO included in the 1996 PRC report. Our specific task, in this meeting, will be to make any modifications necessary.

In conclusion, these meetings in Metkovic will contribute to the success of the implementation of MED-HYCOS project.

At short term range, this project will be successful, only if the countries invest strongly their competencies in the different activities presently administrated by the PRC.

At medium term range, the introduction of a technological advance and the promotion of data exchanges between the countries themselves, the MED-HYCOS project will contribute to improve a regional co-operation between hydrologists and between the main actors in water sector in Mediterranean and Black sea areas.

I hope you will benefit from these meetings.

Thank you very much for being here today and thank you for your attention and for your great interest in our project.

Sketches and civil engineering details of Metkovic DCP site



- At the middle of the scheme, there is the DCP Tower base (1,5 m x 1,5 m) and upper it the rain gauge base (0,3 m x 0,3 m)

- Floor is grass

- Fence : According to local regulations (min 2 m high)

- Dots represent the tubes for the water level probe and for the rain gauge. 



- 4 Pieces

- Material : Stainless Steel L profile; 40mm x 40mm

- Dimensions in mm

- Tolerances +/- 1mm except for the holes where the tollerance is +/- 0,5mm 



- Material : reinforced concrete MB300; armored with iron grid 15 cm x 15 cm in two layers

To position the tower supports on the right places within the tower base, the lower part of the tower will be assembled, the supports will be attached and the whole construction will be put on the place into the excavated hole. After the leveling, the hole will be filled with concrete up to desired level.
Do not forget to put the tubes for the rain gauge and water level probe cables.

To fix tower supports to the construction of the tower, 8 extra bolts M10x20 are needed. 8 extra bolts M10x50 are to be put lower on the tower supports to achieve better contact with the tower base. 16 M10 nuts are needed too. All these bolts and nuts have to be made of stainless steel. 



The foot of the raingauge will be provided with three bolts M8x100 fixed with nuts. The concrete will be put in the cavity in the soil. After an hour as the concrete starts to harden, the foot with the bolts will be put in place and leveled.

The foot will be left in some higher position then final. Next day the foot will be moved, and the base will be straightened and leveled up to desired haight. A rubber gastet will be put between the foot and the concrete and the foot will be finaly tightened and leveled.
The sequence of the raingauge foot fastening is showed on the next pages. 

Presentation from Slovenia by Mr. Bojan CERNAC


The hydrological service :

  • conducts observations and measurements at 175 water measurement stations on the rivers and 136 stations for ground water (of the surface water stations 17 are automatic with direct data transfer- the number of stations is increasing with the implementation of the modernisation programme);
  • processes basic hydrological data (water level, discharge, temperature, turbidity, ground water level, etc.). After processing and analysis data are stored in the national data bank;
  • statistical processing of basic data (storms, occurrence, frequency, duration, data on high water waves, etc.;
  • studies the water regime of surface waters, natural conditions and properties as the bases for preparing water management documentation, management of water sources, and various water management project, and basic and applied research;
  • determines the water balance for the determining drainage characteristics of rivers and accumulation and protective areas of underground waters;
  • studies the regime of underground waters in aquifers important for water supply;determines the transportation of suspended sediment in the main Slovenian water courses;
  • makes measurements and processes data on tides and temperature of the sea;
  • monitors the water conditions in extreme conditions (floods, draughts) and broadcast the reports, warnings and forecasts;
  • conducted hydrological studies and feasibility studies for clients.
The users of our services are :
  • water management companies, the Water Management Institute, FGG - Hydrotechnical department, , Geological Institute - Hydrogeological department, National Office for Protection and rescue at the Ministry of defence, and others whose activities are connected with water.
We co-operate in international hydrological operations :

on a bilateral level with the hydrological services of neighbouring countries (Austria, Croatia and Hungary), on a multilateral level in establishing the alarm system in the Danube Environmental protection Programme and in the international working groups for monitoring methods for Integer project.

Presentation from YUGOSLAVIA by Mrs. KRISTINA PERIC


Meteorological and hydrological activities in Yugoslavia began in the middle of nineteenth century, when the first observation network was established. In the first half of this century, the hydrological service was a part of the Ministry of Civil Engineering. By uniting meteorological and hydrological activities in 1947 Hydrometeorological Service of Yugoslavia was established.

Present organization of Hydrometeorological Service in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Today the Hydrological Service of Yugoslavia is an integral part of the Hydrometeorological Service of Yugoslavia which consists of :

  • the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute (FHMI), acting as the National Meteorological and Hydrological Center;
  • the Hydrometeorological Institute of the Republic of Serbia and the Hydrometeorological Institute of the Republic of Montenegro, both acting as the local meteorological and hydrological Services.
Structure and main activities of the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute

In accordance with the federal laws of Yugoslavia, the Hydrological Department of the FHMI acts as the National Centre of Yugoslavia, co-ordinating and uniting the work of the republic /operational hydrological services within the country, and at the same time connecting FR Yugoslavia with similar services of other countries and relevant international organisations such as WMO, UNESCO, Danube Commission and so on. Total number of employees in Hydrometeorological Service of Yugoslavia is 750 ones, 60 of which are hydrologists (University degree), 97 technicians and about 600 external observers.

The main responsibilities of FHMI as the National Hydrological Center are :

  • planning and supervision of the development of hydrological observational system;
  • running, maintenance and development of hydrological telecommunication system;
  • hydrological forecasts and hydrological forecast models development;
  • hydrological safety of inland water navigation;
  • hydrological and water pollution data bases management, publishing and exchange of data;
  • monitoring of water quality and investigation of water resources;
  • data processing, evidence and control of data, archiving and maintenance of national hydrological data bank, issuing annuals, issuing hydrological studies and monograph on temporal and spatial characteristics of water regime for significant basins etc.
FHMI is responsible for carrying out the international commitments of Yugoslavia in the fields of hydrology (coordination and implementation of the international projects and programs).

The main activities of Republic Hydrometeorological Institutes are :

In general the Hydrometeorological Institutes of the republics can meet the requirements of the final users with the meteorological and hydrological information, raw or processed data, reports etc. The major resposibilities are :

  • establishing, running, maintenance and development of observational networks;
  • hydrological measurements, data processing and control;
  • issuing hydrological and environmental reviews and forecasts for general public and specific users;
  • issuing early warnings concerning hazardous hydrological phenomena such as river flooding;
  • research of water regimes and water resources and their impact on economy;
  • water quality control and environmental protection etc.
Hydrological observing system of Yugoslavia

The present hydrological observing system in the territory of Yugoslavia consists of surface water station network (Figure 1.), ground water station network and water pollution monitoring network :

Surface water station network
parameters water level discharge water temper. suspend. sediment ice
number of stations 298* 258 70 37 298 in winter period
frequency 1-2 daily 10 -15 per year 1-2 daily daily
* among them 205 are water level recording gauging stations

Ground water station network
parameters water level water temperature
number of stations 358 92
frequency 2, 3 or 6 times monthly 3 or 6 times monthly

Water Pollution Monitoring Network (physical-chemical and biological parameters)
parameters surface water ground water Adriatic sea
number of stations 208 93 19
frequency 6-12 times per year 2 times per year 12 times per year
number of parameters 42 - 60 24 42

Presentation from Bosnia-Herzegovina by Mr. Dzevad HADZIC

I am glad to be present on the meeting where a respected representatives of MED-HYCOS project take apart, as well as eminent specialists from Mediterranean countries.

My exposure about a status of hydrological service will be different from others.

Five years ago activity of the service in Bosnia-Herzegovina was identical as in other services in ex Yugoslavia.

Hydrological stations were distributed according to criteria accepted by WMO.

But in past five years the time has stopped in this service in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

It was 350 hydro-measuring stations. Among them 90 limnigraphs prevailing pressure type and 5 automatic reporting stations.

Today this network is almost all destroyed. The only bright moment in present time to be mentioned is catchment area of lower part river Neretva and Cetina where hydrological service worked in greatest extent.

The large problem in revitalisation of the Service is step-on mines, which number, according to military officials, rounds about 3,5 million in Bosnia.

This is a huge barrier in renewal, as in money so in time.

I ask donators from World Bank and WMO to help the service in my country, and it will pay back with quality of it’s labour. We are not able to do it by ourselves.

Thank you.

Hydrology in Cyprus

(August '97 update)

1.0 Introduction

In Cyprus the hydrological and meteorological activities were initiated back in the year 1881.

The hydrological activities are carried out by the Department of Water Development and the meteorological by the Department of Meteorological Service. Both departments belong to the Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Environment.

1.1 The Water Resources of the Island

Cyprus has always been confronted with the problem of inadequate water both for its domestic and its irrigation needs. This is due to its semi-arid climate, the average annual rainfall being about 500 mm, and its traditional inclination towards agriculture whilst the booming tourism industry is pressing for more water.

Of the estimated 900 Mm³ total average annual water resource some 300 Mm³ naturally replenish the aquifers most of which are in the coastal areas and which in turn are pumped and utilized mainly for irrigation and 600 Mm³ appear as surface runoff. The water cycle for Cyprus is shown on the attached figure.

Groundwater was the first to be developed in the island since surface water is available only between November and April when it is least needed.

At first, springs were used and developed followed by hand-dug wells and chains-of-wells (Qanats) in shallow aquifers. With the introduction of drilling machines and pumping equipment the aquifers were fully developed to the extent that certain aquifers have either been exhausted by ´mining´ or sea-intrusion took over extensive parts of them.

Until the early 1970´s the 270 Mm³/year of groundwater use pumped from the aquifers and from springs represented about 80% of the water used in the country. Of this quantity, some 40 Mm³ represented overpumping mainly in three of the main aquifers whilst some additional 70 Mm³ per year are estimated as being lost to the sea.

The last 33 years have seen a revolution in the water supply industry. Since 1960, the year of Independence, the number of dams has risen from 21 to 96 and of these the major dams increased from 10 in 1962 to 47 in 1993. In 1960 most villages relied on communal water fountains but since then around 600 villages have had domestic water supplies installed and their sources developed. Schemes have been more numerous and larger as time has gone on storage capacity in 1960 being 6.1 Mm³ and at present, 291 Mm³. The area irrigated has risen from 1,600 hectares to almost 21,000 hectares. Figure 1 presents a map of Cyprus with its physical features and the location of major water development projects.

With the high dams built not far from the coast the groundwater replenishing regime in most areas has been modified and downstream aquifers depend more and more on artificial groundwater recharge either through controlled releases from the dams directly onto the downstream riverbeds or through purposely built spreading grounds at strategic points on the aquifers. This trend will continue as long as existing domestic supply schemes continue to operate on the basis of groundwater extraction and until the planned water supply treatment plants are completed.

This also holds true for irrigation as long as the existing dependence on the aquifers is maintained and until direct supplies are provided from the dams to substitute an equal amount of groundwater.

Even with the water resources development described above, by which almost two-thirds of the annual water crop has been harnessed, the seriousness of the shortage of water in Cyprus is illustrated by the fact that only 12 - 13% of arable land is currently being irrigated, yet over-pumping is occurring.

1.2 Demand and Supply

The total water consumption in Cyprus is currently about 305 Mm³ annually, of which 65 Mm³ for Municipal and Industrial (M & I) purposes and 240 Mm³ for irrigation.

In a normal year the current water balance for Cyprus as a whole is favourable. The drought, however of 1989/91 demonstrated quite convincingly how critical the water situation might be even at the current water use level. During the summer of 1991 stored water reached the record low of 8.7% of the total storage capacity. Water supply to municipal systems was on average reduced by 25% while permanent crops were allocated 80% of the normal demand. Annual crops were limited to as much as 70% of the area irrigated in a normal year.

Advanced water management principles based on low water supply lasting for two consecutive years are and should be used for satisfying the spatial and temporal varying demand.

1.3. Future water resources plan

Demand for water is expected to increase in the years to come. This stems directly from the need of providing adequate and suitable water supplies for all the sectors of the economy as the economy and population expand. On the very conservative assumption that no further land will be developed for irrigation than that presently planned, it is projected that irrigation water demand would increase from 240 Mm³ in 1995 to 295 Mm³ in 2010 and remain rather stable thereafter. Similarly water for M & I would increase from 65 Mm³ in 1995 to 105 Mm³ in 2020. There is an increase of 95 Mm³ in the time span between 1995 and 2020 which corresponds to 31 percent of the present gross demand.

Augmenting the supply so as to satisfy the increasing demand for water is an arduous undertaking. The Government policy for achieving this goal is based on the following three components:

Development of New Water Source

  • Development of the country’s remaining surface water resources.
  • Re-use of sewage effluent.
  • Reduction of evaporation from storage reservoirs.
  • Desalination of sea and/or brackish water.
Water Demand Management
  • More effective operation, maintenance and control of the water projects.
  • Controlling the demand through technical and pricing mechanisms.
  • Mechanisms for rationing and allocation priorities in times of scarcity.
  • Public awareness campaigns for water conservation measures.

1.4 The Water Resources Management Set up in Cyprus


The policy control of the Water Industry in Cyprus is divided between the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and the Planning Bureau.

Executive Level

At executive level the industry is mainly in the hands of the Water Development Department of the Ministry of Agriculture but usually only in an advisory capacity. Legal power lies with the District Officers of the Ministry of the Interior. The Department of Agriculture is closely concerned with irrigation matters, the Geological Department with the development of boreholes, the Land Surveys Department with the registration of water rights, the Accountant General with finance, loans and tenders and the Planning Bureau with budgets.

User Level

Domestic Water Supplies are managed by the Town Water Boards in the major towns of Nicosia, Larnaca and Limassol, and by Municipal, Improvement Board or Village Water Committees elsewhere.

Irrigation Water Supplies are managed by local Irrigation Divisions formed of landowners or Irrigation Associations, formed of water-rights owners. Recent Government Irrigation Schemes supply water direct to the farmer and are managed by Project Water Committees chaired by the District Officer.

1.5. Description of the Institutions for Hydro-Meteorological measurements

The Water Development Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment

The Department of Water Development of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, is responsible for formulating and executing the Government´s overall policy on water resources, planning, design and construction on the Island. It cooperates in the management of water resources and water development projects together with other Departments, Ministries and water distribution organizations. It normally has no contact with the individual consumer. Since 1982 the Department also undertakes the design and construction of sewerage and sewage disposal works for Town Sewage Boards and Village Public Health Committees.

The Water Development Department is made up of ten Divisions. Pertinent to water resources for collection and interpretation of hydrological and hydrogeological data both for surface and groundwater are the Divisions of Water Resources and of Hydrology.

The Division of Hydrology operates as a central unit with minimal purpose-selected staff making use of the staff available at the Regional Offices for field data and observations.

The Division consists of four major branches:

  • Surface Hydrology Branch
  • Groundwater Hydrology Branch
  • Water Resources Management Branch and
  • Engineering Hydrology Branch
The basic tasks of the Division aim to provide the Director and the Department the following:
  • Basic information about the water resources of the country.
  • Advice and expertise on:
    • new water development projects
    • Hydrological background to water allocation
    • Management of water resources and their storages
    • Measures against pollution.
  • Appraisal of the exploitation policy of the water resources and its consequences as to quality and quantity.
The Division of Water Resources is mainly responsible for field measurements of surface runoff and sediments, groundwater levels and quality, mesurements of springs, issue of drilling permits and evaluation of groundwater extraction.

The Department of Meteorology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment

The Meteorology Department is responsible for monitoring rainfall, evaporation and other climatologic parameters in the Island beyond its responsibility for climatologic evaluation reports for air and marine travel.

2.0 The hydrological approach, data collection and practice


The longest hydrologic record available in the island and with the most wide distribution is that of rainfall. For some 63 rainfall gauges the record extends back to 1916/17 ( see Table below).
Non Recording Gauges
(Years of record) 
< 26  26 - 75  76 - 100  > 100  Total 
0 - 500  80  54  31  28  118 
501 - 1000  15  14  17  16  47 
1001 - 1500  16 
1501 - 2000 
Total  71  54  52  182 
Recording Gauges
(Years of record) 
< 6  6 - 10  11 - 30  > 30  Total 
0 - 500  80  13  26  44 
501 - 1000  15  12  14 
1001 - 1500 
1501 - 2000 
Total  14  41  64 


The evaporation is measured at 29 stations most of which have a record of 10 to 30 years. The Table below lists the observation network for evaporation measurements.
Evaporation Pans
(Years of record) 
< 6  6 - 10  11 - 30  > 30  Total 
0 - 500  80  20  26 
501 - 1000  15 
1001 - 1500 
1501 - 2000 
Total  28  36 

Surface runoff

The surface runoff is recorded at some 65 weirs spread throughout the island and especially concentrated around the Troodos Mountains from which the major streams issue. For more than 40 weirs, the record extends between 10 and 30 years.
Discharge Recording stations
(Years of record) 
< 6  6 - 10 11 - 30  > 30  Total 
0 - 500  80  38  18  51  107 
501 - 1000  15  11 
1001 - 1500 
1501 - 2000 
Total  41  20  57  118 


Groundwater levels and quality are monitored on a monthly basis from some 100 observation wells whilst some 1200 wells and boreholes are monitored twice-a- year. Groundwater extraction estimates are made on more than 13 000 wells on the basis of land use and method of irrigation.

Surface runoff simulation

The existing record of observed stream flows in itself is not sufficiently long (10 -20 years) to enable a meaningful application of operation studies such as reservoir operation studies, etc. This is often the case in most developing countries. Cyprus is fortunate to have a long rainfall record (80 years) derived from a sufficiently dense raingauge-network. This long rainfall record combined with the relatively short record of stream-flows is used through a catchment model which generates an extended runoff record using the long history of climatic data. The calibration of this model is based on the available runoff record.

The rainfall-runoff model, adapted to local conditions is a conceptual one and it is a simplified version of the Stanford Model, which basically uses the hydrological cycle process and involves most of its parameters. It is of the storage type. The input consists of the 24-hour area-precipitation data and mean daily evaporation. The model synthesizes daily stream flow whilst the output is expressed as monthly runoff as well as daily flow duration.

On the basis of these simulated flows all the feasibility studies for reservoir design and operation have been carried out. The runoff simulation is reviewed as the observed record becomes larger.

Hydrological Surveys

Hydrological Surveys of the groundwater bearing systems starting with the most important ones were initiated in a small scale in 1954 by the Water Development Department. After 1960 these surveys were accelerated in scale until all the aquifers were covered. Until recently these surveys covered an area of 3700 sq. km and more than 45 000 wells, boreholes, springs and chains-of-wells have been registered.

The Survey includes, the registration and plotting on Land Registry maps of all the existing wells and boreholes, together with other information like the owner, the pumping plant used, the area irrigated and type of crop, irrigation method etc.

A dense network of private wells as well as a number of purposely drilled observation boreholes are topographically leveled.

Water Balance studies and groundwater modeling

The result of the hydrologic surveys, the hydrologic observations and hydrogeological evaluation of the main aquifers has resulted to water balance studies and safe yield definition. This led to the development of groundwater models for most of the aquifers which allow the study of the performance of the aquifer to various stresses of pumping or recharge. The mathematical groundwater model solves the general groundwater flow equation for a two-dimensional flow over a nodal grid by replacing it with an equivalent system of finite difference equations, the simultaneous solution of which gives the water levels at a finite number of nodes within the boundaries of the aquifer.

A calibrated groundwater model of an aquifer is a useful tool for evaluating the effects that may result from management decisions regarding the abstraction or operation of artificial recharge etc. on the water - table configuration.

The groundwater models have played an important role in the overall understanding of the aquifer systems, their water-balance and the overall management of the groundwater resources in conjunction with surface water development.

3.0 Existing databases for hydrological data and information

Although a large amount of hydrometeorological and hydrogeological data exist in Cyprus and are kept in ledgers, and files still only a small proportion is available in a digital form which can be used directly on Personal Computer applications. Even this information which is available in a digital form is not under a formal database encompassing all types of data.

What actually exist in effect is data in spreadsheet files such as MS-Excel, Quattro, Lotus and other commercial software which are collated as "study specific" files prepared at the time of particular studies and research being carried out. These files are used in their form or modified to suit other studies as the need arises.

These study specific sets of data files constitute in effect smaller databases and are available at the Water Development Dept. and more specifically at the Division of Hydrology and are used for various studies and research activities being updated at the time of need.

Such databank applications exist for the following:

Rainfall Data Bank

For some 60 stations the daily rainfall is available in a digital form since 1916. This dataset is being used for rainfall - runoff simulation, flood studies and other research activities and studies. The information is in ASCII format and is easily transferable to other software for the various applications.

Observed runoff Data Banks

Mean daily observed runoff for the period of 1965 onwards is kept in files and in digital form used mainly for rainfall - runoff simulations and reservoir operation studies or groundwater balance evaluations.

Practically all the observed runoff record is in a digital form. A more formal database is available for the monthly observed runoff for the period of 1965 to 1995 called "Flogasta". Through this database monthly observed flows can be edited, analyzed statistically, printed out and graphs can be created. On the same database, area-rainfall values are incorporated for each catchment together with maximum and minimum instantaneous flows.

Groundwater Data Banks

The abundance of information obtained through the Hydrological Surveys is being introduced into a computer data bank for easy reference.

The information contains among other, the location of each well, the name of owner and his address, the depth, the pumping equipment and the area and kind of crop irrigated and the irrigation method.

Already, data for 8500 wells and boreholes have been introduced with 88 fields of information for each one of them.

Feasibility and water balance studies as well as the issue of annual pumping permits are greatly facilitated through the use of this data bank. Using dBase IV such databanks are available for two major aquifers in the island, The Akrotiri and Kokkinochoria aquifers.

The data fields contain amongst other, information on the location of each well, the name owner and address, the depth, the pumping equipment and the irrigation method used, the extent of are irrigated by each well and the type of crop, the yield of each well and in the case of Akrotiri (500 boreholes) the monthly reading of the watermeter showing the water extracted.

Feasibility and water balance studies as well as the issuing of annual permits are greatly facilitated through the use of this data bank.

More recently, the chemical analysis of groundwater started being introduced into a database and already the Akrotiri aquifer is practically completed with about 1000 analysis reports having been introduced.

Ground water level data are also available for most of the aquifers in a digitized form (spreadsheet files) covering monthly networks involving more than 150 wells throughout the island and spanning over a 20 year period.

Other information also exists on individual data files ( mainly spreadsheets) such as water demands, springs, population census, irrigated areas etc.

4.0 Internet and web site

No web - site has been developed as yet within the Water Development Dept. although Internet connection exists.