Med-Hycos - le Projet
Base de connaissance
The second meeting of Regional Task Force 1 (Establishment of the MED-HYCOS network of DCPs) being organised in Metkovic from May 12th to 24th (the list of participants is given in Appendix 1) ; the participants to both meetings attended the opening of the ICG meeting.
Mr Marc Morell, co-ordinator of the MED-HYCOS Pilot Regional Centre (PRC), welcomed the participants.
The Mayor of Metkovic, Mr. Yvo Margeta, warmly welcomed the participants and expressed his wishes to all of them for a fruitful and pleasant meeting in the city.
Mr Morell was appointed chairperson.
Mr. John Bassier, representative of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) thanked the Meteorological and Hydrological Service, the PRC team and the local authorities for hosting the RTF1 and ICG meeting and for providing excellent facilities.
Mr John Bassier, in his opening address recalled the main goals of the MED-HYCOS project and emphasised three points :
Mr Kreso Pandzic representing the Director of the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia gave a general presentation of this Service.
Mr Milan Zupan the head of the Hydrological Department presented an overview of the water resources of Croatia.
Mr Marc Morell gave a global presentation of the implementation of the MED-HYCOS project and the objectives of the RTF 1 training session and of the ICG meeting in Metkovic.
Mr Serge Pieyns from WMO gave some information on other regional components of the WHYCOS Programme.
The training program had two parts: the first week was dedicated to the theoretical aspects of the installation, operation and maintenance of DCPs, while the second week dealt with the practical aspects concerning the installation and putting into operation of a DCP on a site on the Neretva River in Metkovic.
This training program was held by trainers formed at the first RTF1 meeting (Toulouse & Montpellier, September 1996).
The meeting facilitated a
comprehensive exchange of opinions between participants on almost all the
aspects of the program. The statements and recommendations presented below
are a summary of the discussions.
The river basin area down to Metkovic takes 6819 km². Estuary is 20,6 km downstream from Metkovic. The average descent of Neretva is 5,02%.
The lowest water level is in summertime and the highest is in winter and springs as a result of the snow melting in the mountains. The maximum water level of +440 cm was registered in January 1953 and the minimum was +1cm in June 1964. The average yearly water level is +93 cm.
The highest water temperature in Neretva at Metkovic is in August and the lowest in January. The maximum water temperature of 26°C was registered in August 1993 and the lowest temperature was 0°C registered in November 1983. The average yearly water temperature is 11,9°C.
The riverbed between Metkovic and the estuary is made artificially in last century. It is 11 m deep measured from zero water level. This has been done to enable the big ocean ships to travel up to Metkovic where a greatest harbour in the area was built. The decay between Metkovic and the estuary is rather small and a strong influence of the saline water is present all a way up to Metkovic.
Measurements at the position
of the DCP in Metkovic made in low water level season showed as follows
|Water level||Remains after evaporation||Judgment|
|- 20 cm||382 mg/l||potable water|
|-270 cm||920 mg/l||brackish water|
|-520 cm||29110 mg/l||saline water|
The water level gauge of the DCP installed has been put on -10 cm. This will enable to meet two conditions :
|EXACT POSITION :||43°03'15"N|
|TRANSMISSION CHANNEL :||RO8|
|TRANSMISSION FREQUENCY :||402,1225 MHz|
|ORIENTATION OF THE ANTENNA :|
|Azimuth :||204,99 °|
|SCRUTATION PERIODS AND THRESHOLD :|
|Rain||RR||1 min||0,5 mm|
|Air Temp||TA||30 min||0,1°C|
|Water Lev||HH||30 min||1 cm|
|Water T°||TT||30 min|
|REPRESENTATIVITY PERIOD||P = 1 H|
|STORAGE PERIOD||E = 12 H|
|TRANSMISSION TIME 01 07 30 GMT||Each 3 H|
Participants agreed that
it would be helpful that besides technical documentation, a short pedagogical
guide based on the training course should be available, so that any person
with a technical background could install and operate a DCP. The PRC and
the trainers would assemble the guide based on the trainers' course presentations.
The PRC has to ask the manufacturer to correct the following items found not satisfactory during the installations in Tunisia and Croatia :
Slovenia insists in the necessity of adapting the DCP to their existing network.
Some countries would like to have the possibility to implement a serial port to communicate with DCP via a modem or a RS232 device.
Participants agreed that each country should propose a list of environmental sensors (water quality) to be used with the PM46 DCP in a priority order.
In order to avoid the use of the electrical power supply 220 V/50 Hz, the possibility of using an alternative heating system for the rain gauge has to be studied.
A larger choice of cable lengths (specially for water level sensor) should be available on request to suit specific installation conditions.
Participants require the MED-HYCOS database to be linked to a hydrological processing tools package so as the specific needs of different countries to be taken into account. Participating countries should inform the PRC and/or RTF2 team members before the RTF2 meeting to be held about their specific needs.
Cyprus proposes to set up a library of these different software.
Some countries (Cyprus, Macedonia, Malta, Turkey) are looking for an hydrological software which deals with all the hydrological aspects of measured data processing, collected either by existing networks or by DCPs networks. PRC support is requested. Some countries (Cyprus, Malta) would like that a GIS software should be included.
If there is a possibility to retrieve Meteosat message by means of Internet, participants agree it would be easier to use it than the GTS system.
It would be helpful to have
a "news group" on the Internet for the exchange of ideas about all aspects
of the project. We remind the participants that a MED-HYCOS forum was created
several months ago. Its address is email@example.com.
In order to subscribe a simple request has to be addressed to the PRC
While waiting for the setting up of regional centres, all problems concerning the DCP must be sent to the PRC.
NOTE: problems mentioned in RTF1 Report 1996 are not repeated
19. APPENDIX 2 : addresses of the RTF1 participants
Addresses of the participants RTF1 - May 12-24, 1997
|PERIC Kristina||ADVISER||Federal Hydrometeorological Institute||Bircaninova 6 Po Box 604 11001 BELGRAD YUGOSLAVIA||381 11 646 555||381 11 646 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|CERNAC Bojan||Senior Adviser||Hydrometeorological Institute of Slovenia||vojkova, 1/b1001 LJUBLJANA SLOVENIA||386 61327461||386 email@example.com|
|GRECH Angel||Ground Water Operations Manager||Water Services Corporation||Qormi Road - luqa LQA05 MALTA||356 234515
|LUCASCHI Bogdan||Head of Meteo and Hydro Instrument Lab||National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology||Sos Bucuresti
|(40 1) 230 31 16||(40 1) 230 31 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|MARCHAND Pierre||PRC||ORSTOM||911 Avenue Agropolis BP 5045 34032 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 1 FRANCE||(33) 04 67 63 64 21||(33) 04 67 41 18 email@example.com|
|SEZEN Nurullah||Hydrologist Meteorological Engineer||Ministry of Energy and Natural resource DSI||Yucetepe 06100 ANKARA TURQUIE||90 312 4183406
90 312 4183420
|90 312 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|LOVOSEVIC Boris||Programmer||Meteorological and hydrological service||10 000 ZAGREB GRIC3 CROATIE||3851 email@example.com|
|MILEVSKI Josif||Chief of Hydrology Department||Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Macedonia||Street Skupi bb 91000 SKOPJE Republic of MACEDONIA||389 91 362572||389 91 361193|
|PERRAUD Manuelle||CRP administrator||MED-HYCOS CRP
|911 Avenue Agropolis
34032 Montpellier cedex 1, France
|(33) 04 67 63 64 29||(33) 04 67 41 21 33||manuelle. firstname.lastname@example.org|
|SKORDIS Panayiotis||Head Engineering Hydrology Branch of the Division of Hydrology and Water resources Management||Water Development Department||Water Development Department 1413 NICOSIA CYPRUS||00357 2303040||00357 email@example.com|
|SMALCELJ IVAN||Leader of the electronic laboratory||Meteorological and hydrological service||10 000 ZAGREB GRIC 3 CROATIE||(385) 1 4565601||(385) 1 278703|
|HADZIC DZEVAD||Hydrologist||Meteorological service Sarajevo||Meteorological service Sarajevo Bosnia Herzegovina||99 387 71 540 070||99 387 71 540 070|
|ZUPAN Milan||Meteorological and Hydrological service||GRIC 3 10000 ZAGREB CROATIA||(385) 127 72 01||(385) 127 33 firstname.lastname@example.org|
|TRINIC Dusan||Forecast Department||10 000 ZAGREB GRIC 3 CROATIE||385 1 435 689||385 1 273 325|
|CESAREC Ksenija||10 000 ZAGREB GRIC 3 CROATIE||385 1 435 225||385 1 273 325|
|VIDOVIC Marin||Hydrology Engineer||VODOPRAVNI Inspector||VODOPRAVNI Inspector Zupanije dubroveko neretvanske 20350 METKOVIC CROATIA||385 020 681 155||385 020 681 655|
|NASRALLAH Salem||Hydrologist||Ministère Agriculture DGRE||41, rue Manoubia
|(216) 1 514782||(216) 1 391549|
|Sunday 11th :|
in Dubrovnik 17 h 40
Transfer to Metkovic by bus (Narona or MB Hotel)
|Monday 12th :|
|10h00||Welcome of the participants
of both meetings in the Cultural Centre (in front of Narona Hotel)
Information on the organisation of the stay
|14h00||Allocution of Mr Ivo Margeta, Mayor of Metkovic|
|14h15||Presentation of the hydro-meteorological service of Croatia by Dr. Kreso Pandzic representing the Director|
|15h00||Presentation of the hydrological resources of Croatia by Milan Zupan|
|16h00||Presentation of MED-HYCOS project and of the meetings agenda by Marc Morell, Pilot Regional Centre (PRC) Co-ordinator|
|16h45||Presentation of the MED-HYCOS Web Site by Robert Gouyet -PRC-|
|Tuesday 13th :|
|09h00||Meeting presentation by Bogdan Lucaschi - Romania and Ivan Smalcelj - Croatia|
|09h15||Presentation of hydrological
Slovenia by Bojan Cernac
Yugoslavia by Kristina Peric
Bosnia Herzegovina by Dzevad Hadzic
Cyprus by Panayiotis Skordis
|14h15||Web site maintenance and hydrological products by Robert Gouyet-CRP- and Vladimir Malovic- Croatia -|
|16h00||Satellite training: Meteosat system, GTS by Bogdan Lucaschi -Romania- and Pierre Marchand -PRC-|
|Wednesday 14th :|
|09h00||Metoesat training: Meteosat transmitter with GPS, instruction for directional antenna by Bogan Lucaschi -Romania- and Pierre Marchand -PRC-|
|14h00||DCP Installation: Sensors, assembly and installation of hydrological tower by Angel Grech -Malta- and Josif Milevski -Macedonia-|
|18h00||Closure of the meeting|
|20h00||Dinner offered by local authorities|
|Thursday 15th :|
|09h00||DCP Operation: presentation of the DCP software by Angel Grech -Malta- and Pierre Marchand -PRC-|
|11h40||Data processing: by Nurullah Sezen -Turkey- and Pierre Marchand -PRC-|
|14h40||Retrieval of collected data: by Nurullah Sezen - Turkey- and Pierre Marchand -PRC-|
|Friday 16th :|
|09h00||Presentation of DCP Installation in Tunisia by Nasrallah Salem -Tunisia-|
|10h40||Assembly of lower part of Hydrologic tower on site|
|14h00||Presentation of CREX code by Nurullah Sezen - Turkey-|
|15h45||Lightening protection used on Automatic stations in Slovenia by Bojan Cernac|
|16h40||Overview of this week’s training by Ivan Smalcelj -Croatia-|
|Saturday 17th :|
|Day trip to Dubrovnic|
|Sunday 18th :|
|Monday 19th and Tuesday 20th :|
|DCP Installation on site|
|Wednesday 21st :|
|Practice and data retrieval on site|
|Thursday 22nd :|
|Writing of the report and closure of the meeting|
Ladies and gentlemen.
First, I'd like to thank very much our Croatian hosts, especially :
This afternoon, I'd like
This global network of reference stations is being developed through regional components with the aim of promoting modern technologies and a regional approach to water related problems, by improving the capacities of the hydrological services and by encouraging co-operation between hydrologists.
The first regional component, called MED-HYCOS, concerns the riparian countries of the Mediterranean Sea, with a possible extension to Black Sea as additional funds would be made available to the project.
At short term range, the purposes of MED-HYCOS project are to promote modern technologies, and to encourage co-operation between hydrological services.
At middle and long term range, the purposes are to provide a reliable base, for assessment and management of water resources, and to contribute to the knowledge of the hydrological processes, in connection with climate and environment.
The Mediterranean basin is the world's largest nearly included sea. The characteristics of the basins which are flowing to the Mediterranean sea are :
The objective of the RTF 1 training session in Metkovic, is the same as the one of the session held in France, in September last year. It is instruction on the installation, maintenance and exploitation of the Data Collecting Platforms, or DCP as they are usually called.
This training session will continue in Metkovic over the next two weeks. The installation of the first DCP in Croatia, will enable technicians from all MED-HYCOS countries represented in Metkovic, to gain the 'hands-on' experience they will need, to set up the platforms in their own countries.
I would remind you the main characteristics of the DCPs.
DCPs are multisensors, self powered and reliable data acquisition platforms. These DCPs are equipped by Meteosat transmitters. The installation, implementation and operation of these DCPs must be easy.
The parameters measured by the first 20 DCPs are :
Ineligible countries are by now France, Georgia, Greece, Italy, Moldova, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain and Ukraine.
We hope Bosnia, Bulgaria, and Yugoslavia will be involved in the project as eligible countries.
20 platforms have been delivered to the PRC in August 1996.
The conditions necessary to receive DCPs are :
7 DCPs were sent to these countries :
In 1997, ten other platforms could be purchased by WMO with World Bank funds. They could be sent to the countries requiring a second station.
Tunisia must be congratulated for the starting up of their DCP. This DCP is the first one in the project transmitting data.
10 countries are taking part in the present training session in Metkovic.
After the course en Metkovic, about 25 experts from 21 countries have been trained.
In Metkovic, the 7 following experts assist for the first time a DCP training session :
These persons are :
Mr. Pierre Marchand, expert from PRC, will also intervene as instructor during this training session.
During the first week of the training session in Metkovic, you will study all the technical aspects of the management of DCP :
The present training session will enable you to pass on the expertise you have acquired here, to technicians in your own countries.
Until now, Syria and Palestinian territories are the only eligible countries who didn't attend the DCP training session. For them, we plan to organise individualised specific training sessions. The countries which are not represented today in Croatia will have the possibility during the installation of their DCP to get some technical support from some of you.
This session will also provide a forum for the exchange of information, between all the countries about their own departments, hydrological practices, hydrological software, data bases and so on, like in Montpellier last year.
I have asked Mr. Lucaschi from Romania and Mr. Zupan from Croatia to supervise the training session with the help of Mr. Smalcelj who will be in charge of organisational aspects.
You have already received the detailed program of these two weeks training session and also the report of the last meeting in France.
I encourage every participant of this training session to exchange as much information with other participants.
I trust you to produce a good job.
Now, let's jump to the Initial Co-ordinating Group meeting, called ICG.
Before presenting the objectives of the ICG meeting, I'd like to remind you that MED-HYCOS project institutional framework is made up of a Regional Co-operating Group named RCG, an Initial Co-ordination Group named ICG and a Pilot Regional Centre named PRC.
WMO is the executing agency of the project. The World Bank finances the activities of the project during its start up period, from May 95 to May 98.
The Regional Co-operating Group is composed by all the countries and organisations involved in the project.
The RCG is responsible for the definition of strategic, technical and operational aspects of the program.
The RCG has mandated the Initial Co-ordination Group (ICG), presently made up of 7 countries and 5 organisations :
PRC operates under the authority of the ICG and under the control of WMO. The PRC is in charge of the co-ordination of the activities related to the implementation of the project during its start up period. PRC acts as a focal point of a dynamic network grouping the MED-HYCOS partners. In the Initial Co-ordinating Group, the countries are represented by :
The organisations participating, permanently, in the ICG, are :
Before ending my speech, I would like to say that the main objective of the ICG meeting in Metkovic is to review in detail the activities proposed for the coming year.
These activities are listed in the agreement between Orstom and WMO included in the 1996 PRC report. Our specific task, in this meeting, will be to make any modifications necessary.
In conclusion, these meetings in Metkovic will contribute to the success of the implementation of MED-HYCOS project.
At short term range, this project will be successful, only if the countries invest strongly their competencies in the different activities presently administrated by the PRC.
At medium term range, the introduction of a technological advance and the promotion of data exchanges between the countries themselves, the MED-HYCOS project will contribute to improve a regional co-operation between hydrologists and between the main actors in water sector in Mediterranean and Black sea areas.
I hope you will benefit from these meetings.
Thank you very much for being
here today and thank you for your attention and for your great interest
in our project.
- At the middle of the scheme,
there is the DCP Tower base (1,5 m x 1,5 m) and upper it the rain gauge
base (0,3 m x 0,3 m)
- Floor is grass
- Fence : According to local
regulations (min 2 m high)
- Dots represent the tubes for the water level probe and for the rain gauge.
- 4 Pieces
- Material : Stainless Steel
L profile; 40mm x 40mm
- Dimensions in mm
- Tolerances +/- 1mm except for the holes where the tollerance is +/- 0,5mm
- Material : reinforced concrete
MB300; armored with iron grid 15 cm x 15 cm in two layers
To position the tower supports
on the right places within the tower base, the lower part of the tower
will be assembled, the supports will be attached and the whole construction
will be put on the place into the excavated hole. After the leveling, the
hole will be filled with concrete up to desired level.
To fix tower supports to the construction of the tower, 8 extra bolts M10x20 are needed. 8 extra bolts M10x50 are to be put lower on the tower supports to achieve better contact with the tower base. 16 M10 nuts are needed too. All these bolts and nuts have to be made of stainless steel.
RAIN GAUGE BASE
The foot of the raingauge
will be provided with three bolts M8x100 fixed with nuts. The concrete
will be put in the cavity in the soil. After an hour as the concrete starts
to harden, the foot with the bolts will be put in place and leveled.
The foot will be left in
some higher position then final. Next day the foot will be moved, and the
base will be straightened and leveled up to desired haight. A rubber gastet
will be put between the foot and the concrete and the foot will be finaly
tightened and leveled.
The hydrological service :
on a bilateral level with
the hydrological services of neighbouring countries (Austria, Croatia and
Hungary), on a multilateral level in establishing the alarm system in the
Danube Environmental protection Programme and in the international working
groups for monitoring methods for Integer project.
Meteorological and hydrological activities in Yugoslavia began in the middle of nineteenth century, when the first observation network was established. In the first half of this century, the hydrological service was a part of the Ministry of Civil Engineering. By uniting meteorological and hydrological activities in 1947 Hydrometeorological Service of Yugoslavia was established.
Present organization of Hydrometeorological Service in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Today the Hydrological Service of Yugoslavia is an integral part of the Hydrometeorological Service of Yugoslavia which consists of :
In accordance with the federal laws of Yugoslavia, the Hydrological Department of the FHMI acts as the National Centre of Yugoslavia, co-ordinating and uniting the work of the republic /operational hydrological services within the country, and at the same time connecting FR Yugoslavia with similar services of other countries and relevant international organisations such as WMO, UNESCO, Danube Commission and so on. Total number of employees in Hydrometeorological Service of Yugoslavia is 750 ones, 60 of which are hydrologists (University degree), 97 technicians and about 600 external observers.
The main responsibilities of FHMI as the National Hydrological Center are :
The main activities of Republic Hydrometeorological Institutes are :
In general the Hydrometeorological Institutes of the republics can meet the requirements of the final users with the meteorological and hydrological information, raw or processed data, reports etc. The major resposibilities are :
The present hydrological observing system in the territory of Yugoslavia consists of surface water station network (Figure 1.), ground water station network and water pollution monitoring network :
Surface water station
|parameters||water level||discharge||water temper.||suspend. sediment||ice|
|number of stations||298*||258||70||37||298 in winter period|
|frequency||1-2 daily||10 -15 per year||1-2 daily||daily|
|* among them 205 are water level recording gauging stations|
Ground water station network
|parameters||water level||water temperature|
|number of stations||358||92|
|frequency||2, 3 or 6 times monthly||3 or 6 times monthly|
Water Pollution Monitoring
Network (physical-chemical and biological parameters)
|parameters||surface water||ground water||Adriatic sea|
|number of stations||208||93||19|
|frequency||6-12 times per year||2 times per year||12 times per year|
|number of parameters||42 - 60||24||42|
My exposure about a status of hydrological service will be different from others.
Five years ago activity of the service in Bosnia-Herzegovina was identical as in other services in ex Yugoslavia.
Hydrological stations were distributed according to criteria accepted by WMO.
But in past five years the time has stopped in this service in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
It was 350 hydro-measuring stations. Among them 90 limnigraphs prevailing pressure type and 5 automatic reporting stations.
Today this network is almost all destroyed. The only bright moment in present time to be mentioned is catchment area of lower part river Neretva and Cetina where hydrological service worked in greatest extent.
The large problem in revitalisation of the Service is step-on mines, which number, according to military officials, rounds about 3,5 million in Bosnia.
This is a huge barrier in renewal, as in money so in time.
I ask donators from World Bank and WMO to help the service in my country, and it will pay back with quality of it’s labour. We are not able to do it by ourselves.
The hydrological activities are carried out by the Department of Water Development and the meteorological by the Department of Meteorological Service. Both departments belong to the Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources and Environment.
Of the estimated 900 Mm³ total average annual water resource some 300 Mm³ naturally replenish the aquifers most of which are in the coastal areas and which in turn are pumped and utilized mainly for irrigation and 600 Mm³ appear as surface runoff. The water cycle for Cyprus is shown on the attached figure.
Groundwater was the first to be developed in the island since surface water is available only between November and April when it is least needed.
At first, springs were used and developed followed by hand-dug wells and chains-of-wells (Qanats) in shallow aquifers. With the introduction of drilling machines and pumping equipment the aquifers were fully developed to the extent that certain aquifers have either been exhausted by ´mining´ or sea-intrusion took over extensive parts of them.
Until the early 1970´s the 270 Mm³/year of groundwater use pumped from the aquifers and from springs represented about 80% of the water used in the country. Of this quantity, some 40 Mm³ represented overpumping mainly in three of the main aquifers whilst some additional 70 Mm³ per year are estimated as being lost to the sea.
The last 33 years have seen a revolution in the water supply industry. Since 1960, the year of Independence, the number of dams has risen from 21 to 96 and of these the major dams increased from 10 in 1962 to 47 in 1993. In 1960 most villages relied on communal water fountains but since then around 600 villages have had domestic water supplies installed and their sources developed. Schemes have been more numerous and larger as time has gone on storage capacity in 1960 being 6.1 Mm³ and at present, 291 Mm³. The area irrigated has risen from 1,600 hectares to almost 21,000 hectares. Figure 1 presents a map of Cyprus with its physical features and the location of major water development projects.
With the high dams built not far from the coast the groundwater replenishing regime in most areas has been modified and downstream aquifers depend more and more on artificial groundwater recharge either through controlled releases from the dams directly onto the downstream riverbeds or through purposely built spreading grounds at strategic points on the aquifers. This trend will continue as long as existing domestic supply schemes continue to operate on the basis of groundwater extraction and until the planned water supply treatment plants are completed.
This also holds true for irrigation as long as the existing dependence on the aquifers is maintained and until direct supplies are provided from the dams to substitute an equal amount of groundwater.
Even with the water resources development described above, by which almost two-thirds of the annual water crop has been harnessed, the seriousness of the shortage of water in Cyprus is illustrated by the fact that only 12 - 13% of arable land is currently being irrigated, yet over-pumping is occurring.
In a normal year the current water balance for Cyprus as a whole is favourable. The drought, however of 1989/91 demonstrated quite convincingly how critical the water situation might be even at the current water use level. During the summer of 1991 stored water reached the record low of 8.7% of the total storage capacity. Water supply to municipal systems was on average reduced by 25% while permanent crops were allocated 80% of the normal demand. Annual crops were limited to as much as 70% of the area irrigated in a normal year.
Advanced water management principles based on low water supply lasting for two consecutive years are and should be used for satisfying the spatial and temporal varying demand.
Augmenting the supply so as to satisfy the increasing demand for water is an arduous undertaking. The Government policy for achieving this goal is based on the following three components:
Development of New Water Source
The policy control of the Water Industry in Cyprus is divided between the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and the Planning Bureau.
At executive level the industry is mainly in the hands of the Water Development Department of the Ministry of Agriculture but usually only in an advisory capacity. Legal power lies with the District Officers of the Ministry of the Interior. The Department of Agriculture is closely concerned with irrigation matters, the Geological Department with the development of boreholes, the Land Surveys Department with the registration of water rights, the Accountant General with finance, loans and tenders and the Planning Bureau with budgets.
Domestic Water Supplies are managed by the Town Water Boards in the major towns of Nicosia, Larnaca and Limassol, and by Municipal, Improvement Board or Village Water Committees elsewhere.
Irrigation Water Supplies are managed by local Irrigation Divisions formed of landowners or Irrigation Associations, formed of water-rights owners. Recent Government Irrigation Schemes supply water direct to the farmer and are managed by Project Water Committees chaired by the District Officer.
The Department of Water Development of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, is responsible for formulating and executing the Government´s overall policy on water resources, planning, design and construction on the Island. It cooperates in the management of water resources and water development projects together with other Departments, Ministries and water distribution organizations. It normally has no contact with the individual consumer. Since 1982 the Department also undertakes the design and construction of sewerage and sewage disposal works for Town Sewage Boards and Village Public Health Committees.
The Water Development Department is made up of ten Divisions. Pertinent to water resources for collection and interpretation of hydrological and hydrogeological data both for surface and groundwater are the Divisions of Water Resources and of Hydrology.
The Division of Hydrology operates as a central unit with minimal purpose-selected staff making use of the staff available at the Regional Offices for field data and observations.
The Division consists of four major branches:
The Department of Meteorology of the Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment
The Meteorology Department is responsible for monitoring rainfall, evaporation and other climatologic parameters in the Island beyond its responsibility for climatologic evaluation reports for air and marine travel.
The longest hydrologic record
available in the island and with the most wide distribution is that of
rainfall. For some 63 rainfall gauges the record extends back to 1916/17
( see Table below).
(Years of record)
|< 26||26 - 75||76 - 100||> 100||Total|
|0 - 500||80||54||31||28||5||118|
|501 - 1000||15||14||17||16||0||47|
|1001 - 1500||4||3||6||7||0||16|
|1501 - 2000||1||0||0||1||0||1|
(Years of record)
|< 6||6 - 10||11 - 30||> 30||Total|
|0 - 500||80||3||13||26||2||44|
|501 - 1000||15||1||1||12||0||14|
|1001 - 1500||4||0||0||2||3||5|
|1501 - 2000||1||0||0||1||0||1|
The evaporation is measured
at 29 stations most of which have a record of 10 to 30 years. The Table
below lists the observation network for evaporation measurements.
(Years of record)
|< 6||6 - 10||11 - 30||> 30||Total|
|0 - 500||80||1||5||20||0||26|
|501 - 1000||15||2||0||5||0||7|
|1001 - 1500||4||0||0||3||0||3|
|1501 - 2000||1||0||0||0||0||0|
The surface runoff is recorded
at some 65 weirs spread throughout the island and especially concentrated
around the Troodos Mountains from which the major streams issue. For more
than 40 weirs, the record extends between 10 and 30 years.
(Years of record)
|< 6||6 - 10||11 - 30||> 30||Total|
|0 - 500||80||38||18||51||0||107|
|501 - 1000||15||3||2||6||0||11|
|1001 - 1500||4||0||0||0||0||0|
|1501 - 2000||1||0||0||0||0||0|
Groundwater levels and quality are monitored on a monthly basis from some 100 observation wells whilst some 1200 wells and boreholes are monitored twice-a- year. Groundwater extraction estimates are made on more than 13 000 wells on the basis of land use and method of irrigation.
Surface runoff simulation
The existing record of observed stream flows in itself is not sufficiently long (10 -20 years) to enable a meaningful application of operation studies such as reservoir operation studies, etc. This is often the case in most developing countries. Cyprus is fortunate to have a long rainfall record (80 years) derived from a sufficiently dense raingauge-network. This long rainfall record combined with the relatively short record of stream-flows is used through a catchment model which generates an extended runoff record using the long history of climatic data. The calibration of this model is based on the available runoff record.
The rainfall-runoff model, adapted to local conditions is a conceptual one and it is a simplified version of the Stanford Model, which basically uses the hydrological cycle process and involves most of its parameters. It is of the storage type. The input consists of the 24-hour area-precipitation data and mean daily evaporation. The model synthesizes daily stream flow whilst the output is expressed as monthly runoff as well as daily flow duration.
On the basis of these simulated flows all the feasibility studies for reservoir design and operation have been carried out. The runoff simulation is reviewed as the observed record becomes larger.
Hydrological Surveys of the groundwater bearing systems starting with the most important ones were initiated in a small scale in 1954 by the Water Development Department. After 1960 these surveys were accelerated in scale until all the aquifers were covered. Until recently these surveys covered an area of 3700 sq. km and more than 45 000 wells, boreholes, springs and chains-of-wells have been registered.
The Survey includes, the registration and plotting on Land Registry maps of all the existing wells and boreholes, together with other information like the owner, the pumping plant used, the area irrigated and type of crop, irrigation method etc.
A dense network of private wells as well as a number of purposely drilled observation boreholes are topographically leveled.
Water Balance studies and groundwater modeling
The result of the hydrologic surveys, the hydrologic observations and hydrogeological evaluation of the main aquifers has resulted to water balance studies and safe yield definition. This led to the development of groundwater models for most of the aquifers which allow the study of the performance of the aquifer to various stresses of pumping or recharge. The mathematical groundwater model solves the general groundwater flow equation for a two-dimensional flow over a nodal grid by replacing it with an equivalent system of finite difference equations, the simultaneous solution of which gives the water levels at a finite number of nodes within the boundaries of the aquifer.
A calibrated groundwater model of an aquifer is a useful tool for evaluating the effects that may result from management decisions regarding the abstraction or operation of artificial recharge etc. on the water - table configuration.
The groundwater models have played an important role in the overall understanding of the aquifer systems, their water-balance and the overall management of the groundwater resources in conjunction with surface water development.
What actually exist in effect is data in spreadsheet files such as MS-Excel, Quattro, Lotus and other commercial software which are collated as "study specific" files prepared at the time of particular studies and research being carried out. These files are used in their form or modified to suit other studies as the need arises.
These study specific sets of data files constitute in effect smaller databases and are available at the Water Development Dept. and more specifically at the Division of Hydrology and are used for various studies and research activities being updated at the time of need.
Such databank applications exist for the following:
Rainfall Data Bank
For some 60 stations the daily rainfall is available in a digital form since 1916. This dataset is being used for rainfall - runoff simulation, flood studies and other research activities and studies. The information is in ASCII format and is easily transferable to other software for the various applications.
Observed runoff Data Banks
Mean daily observed runoff for the period of 1965 onwards is kept in files and in digital form used mainly for rainfall - runoff simulations and reservoir operation studies or groundwater balance evaluations.
Practically all the observed runoff record is in a digital form. A more formal database is available for the monthly observed runoff for the period of 1965 to 1995 called "Flogasta". Through this database monthly observed flows can be edited, analyzed statistically, printed out and graphs can be created. On the same database, area-rainfall values are incorporated for each catchment together with maximum and minimum instantaneous flows.
Groundwater Data Banks
The abundance of information obtained through the Hydrological Surveys is being introduced into a computer data bank for easy reference.
The information contains among other, the location of each well, the name of owner and his address, the depth, the pumping equipment and the area and kind of crop irrigated and the irrigation method.
Already, data for 8500 wells and boreholes have been introduced with 88 fields of information for each one of them.
Feasibility and water balance studies as well as the issue of annual pumping permits are greatly facilitated through the use of this data bank. Using dBase IV such databanks are available for two major aquifers in the island, The Akrotiri and Kokkinochoria aquifers.
The data fields contain amongst other, information on the location of each well, the name owner and address, the depth, the pumping equipment and the irrigation method used, the extent of are irrigated by each well and the type of crop, the yield of each well and in the case of Akrotiri (500 boreholes) the monthly reading of the watermeter showing the water extracted.
Feasibility and water balance studies as well as the issuing of annual permits are greatly facilitated through the use of this data bank.
More recently, the chemical analysis of groundwater started being introduced into a database and already the Akrotiri aquifer is practically completed with about 1000 analysis reports having been introduced.
Ground water level data are also available for most of the aquifers in a digitized form (spreadsheet files) covering monthly networks involving more than 150 wells throughout the island and spanning over a 20 year period.
Other information also exists on individual data files ( mainly spreadsheets) such as water demands, springs, population census, irrigated areas etc.